65

No, Anne Frank's story is completely exceptional - both in circumstances and the fact that she hid for so long (and her father survived). This is a typical case of Survivorship bias. Most Holocaust victims left no memoirs (and no surviving relatives either), and did not even have their names recorded as they were murdered. This is why just about everyone ...


36

Recognition of independence is different from de facto independence. While the Dutch Republic was officially recognised as independent only in 1648, it was actually founded 80 years earlier by the Union of Utrecht of 1579. The Dutch provinces were largely autonomous even before they entered into open revolt, but the treaty laid down a constitutional ...


22

Your example seems incorrect. William of Orange was William III of England, whereas the other was William III of the Netherlands. William of Orange was also William III in the Netherlands, but as Stadtholderate under the House of Orange-Nassau, while the other William III you found was King of the Netherlands. Lastly, as point out by LangLangC in the ...


20

For survivors who went undercover the whole time, her story is not all that untypical. The German term for such people was "illegals" or "U-Boote". They needed helpers, they needed hiding places, they needed money for bribes. Wikipedia quotes estimates that several thousand survived that way in Germany. For a Jew who lived in Germany or German-occupied ...


18

There is of course no such thing as a typical holocaust story. There are six million stories and each one is different. The Anne Frank story is special because it was warm and personal enough to have been palatable to the general public in the 1950's, while still being sufficiently tragic and moving to illustrate the enormous evil that was the holocaust. ...


17

You might want to consider Denmark and the House of Estridsen: Valdemar III the Young (co-ruled 1215 - 31) Valdemar III Eriksøn von Schleswig (ruled 1326 - 29) 1. Valdemar the Young or III was co-ruler with his father Valdemar II from 1215 to 1231. Valdemar the Young is sometimes referred to as Valdemar III for example his tombstone reads in Latin: ...


16

According to Wikipedia, this is the naval flag of the Netherlands' Secretary of Defense. This flag would be flown on a ship that the Dutch Secretary of Defense is using as a headquarters (also referred to as a flagship). This type of flag is known as a rank flag.


13

SHORT ANSWER In your case there was a man William who was William III, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and King William III of England (1650-1702) and there was another man known as William III, King of the Netherlands (1817-1890). They were two different members of the same dynasty who were both the third William to hold their position ...


12

To fill out JK's answer: the VOC directly controlled very little except the shipping routes to Amsterdam (and a few other Dutch ports, but the majority of goods arrived at Amsterdam). Indirectly, through deals and influence at the local courts of the rulers of the islands, they controlled far more. By supplying those rulers with weapons, advisors, European ...


11

Te VOC was not interested in control of people or land, but trade. For example nutmeg; the dutch burned every bit of it except on an island of 1 square km so they could control all of it. IIRC the value would go from 1 in Indonesia to 50000 in Amsterdam. The VOC was the single most profitable company in history (according to my prof.). A journey would take a ...


10

I would say it is the flag of Deventer. It's a city towards the east of the Netherlands, that prospered by trading with the various cities around the North and Baltic Sea coast as well as Scandinavia. It is situated at the river IJssel, which feeds in the Zuiderzee (back then, before Afsluitdijk changed it). The port of Amsterdam (depicted on the painting) ...


9

The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, or VoC) was actually founded by the States General of the Netherlands. The States General themselves date back to the 15th century. The right of the States General to convene on their own initiative had been recognised in 1477 by Mary of Burgundy. In the early stages of the Dutch Revolt, the ...


8

I don't think it's an eagle. It looks more like a Gryphon. In that case, it could be from a number of Baltic states or areas, especially Pomerania. But I'm pretty sure it's actually a lion, or more specifically, the Flemish Lion, indicating that the ships are from Flanders, which is the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium nowadays, or from the Netherlands in ...


8

Yes, but this was a lot more complicated than in the Netherlands. During the war, the Dutch colonial government-in-exile in Australia founded the Temporal court-martials, who were tasked with persecuting war criminals and collaborators. The courts started their work as soon as the Dutch regained control over Indonesia and worked until the end of 1949. The ...


7

I came across this question today, and saw that JMVanPelt in his answer mentioned a Dutch book for which no English translation was available. I have translated the relevant parts of it below. I have tried to stay as close as possible to the original phrasing. Below, all emphasis is as in the original, comments between round brackets are also in the original,...


7

Some more info to complement what @PieterGeerkens has found: there's a very scholarly work on the subject on Google Books, Het Bier-oproer te Leeuwarden, in het jaar 1487, in zijne oorzaken en gevolgen by Jacob Dirks; sadly (for me), it's in Dutch and several passages are in Old Dutch or Frisian. But more or less, from what I managed to understand from ...


7

While the veracity of this site on the history of crime may be doubtful, it appears to be the only easily located English-language source The ban was put in place to protect sales of local suds in the city. All beer from outside the city, including that from Friesland’s biggest city, Haarlem, was banned. But despite this, one innkeeper kept ...


7

Perhaps the best way to think of this question is to recognize that there are roughly three ways to think about right/legitimacy, which correspond to the angle of one's approach: the state, domestic stakeholders, and the international community. Each of these are considered below. We should also recognize the difference between a "claim" to legitimacy, and ...


6

Spanish influence didn't take root, at least in the modern Netherlands, because it was "unnatural." Belgium and the Netherlands represented the inheritance of Marie of Burgundy, who married Maximilian of Austria (and lost her native Burgundy to France after she did so). They had a son, Philip the Fair, who married Juana, the daughter of Ferdinand and ...


6

That looks a bit like the flag of Prussia. At the time, Prussia was a duchy vassal of Poland, and had been given as a standard an Eagle. There were a lot of Baltic port cities in Prussia, most notably Danzig (now Gdansk) The only problem is that the eagle is facing the wrong way. Looking through their flags, it looks like there were a couple of iterations ...


6

This Wikipedia article shows the results of the 1930 Dutch East Indies census (in the Social History section), listing 240,417 Europeans out of a total population of over 60.7MM. Calculating this as 0.4% European (with an additional 2.2%, or 1.35MM, Chinese and other foreign orientals), the European population was outnumbered 250-1 and the non-indigenous ...


6

Let's see. The minister of defense Cornelis de Witt was suddenly indicted for treason, and interogated under torture. The raadspensionaris (prime minister) was his brother Johan de Witt. He was also charged with treason, and locked up in the same prison, the Gevangenpoort in The Hague. The charges for both were at the time highly disputable. Interrogating ...


6

There were two Henry VII rulers as kings of Germany, the first of whom co-ruled with and pre-deceased his father. He is often referred to as Henry (VII) to distinguish him from the later Henry VII, much admired by Dante. Some kingdoms do not number crowned kings who co-ruled with their fathers but never in their own right. Thus, Henry II of England's son ...


5

De jure? No. The Republic of the United Netherlands became officially independent in 1648 at the Peace of Munster. De facto? Yes. The VOC was formed just before the 12 Year Truce, in which Spain acknowledged informal independence but not formal. One of the reasons for this 12 year truce was precisely the VOC. Both parties realized the revolt was ...


5

No. And the reason was that the founding of the Dutch East Indies Company was part of the fight for independence. In 1580, Portugal had become subject to the Spanish king in a so-called "personal union." (That is, Portugal and Spain were rule separately by the same ruler.) What had been a rivalry in modern Indonesia between Portuguese and Dutch became part ...


4

In the first half of the 19th century various fur companies trapped and traded with Indians in the US west. I am not familiar with with the various companies but the companies were probably chartered, if at all, in various states of the United States instead of being chartered by the federal government. For example, the partnership of Bent, St Vrain & ...


4

I found a site which might lead to the answer. Sadly I couldn't find the territory named Keizer (Emperor? Maybe is it a royal ensign for the Emperor himself?), the sixth from left, third from top: Very exact match by color and shape. check out this link for greater resolution: Very RARE 18th Century Table of all ship's flags in the world - Gerard van ...


4

It is the baton of the Constable of France, or rather an imitation of it. The explanation of this particular baton is that William of Orange was originally the disciple and member of the court of Holy Roman Emperor, King Charles V. Charles fought many wars in France and as a sort of propaganda measure Charles let himself out as following in the tradition of ...


4

The administration was carried out by the Militair Gezag, literally the Military Authority. This authority was initially based in Brussels (Belgium), later in Breda and finally in The Hague. They had lower authority than the Supreme Allied Commander Allied Forces (General Dwight D. Eisenhower) leading the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces (...


4

This doesn't seem to be one of the larger camps, listed in Prison camps in the Netherlands. Although especially Kamp Erica near Ommen might give you quite a glimpse of the conditions in general after the war in these camps. In Haarlem, there was the much smaller, former garrison-turned-internment-camp: Koudenhorn (~Coldhorn). This is found mentioned quite ...


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