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18

The Norman kingdom in South Italy was certainly not a papal project. On the contrary, the popes tried to oppose the growing Norman power, by diplomatic and military means. Matters came to a particular head in 1053 in the battle of Civitate where the Normans defeated the Pope's army and took him prisoner. But eventually, when the papacy realized the Normans ...


12

Apparently since my previous answer to this same type of question had no upvotes it cannot be used to tag this question as a duplicate. Therefore, I will excerpt the relevant part: The first kings to be more English than French were the Tudors starting with Henry VII. The Tudors married real English women, not French-bred women imported from the continent. ...


9

Although Henry V made English the official language of government, there is some debate as to whether it was him or his father, Henry IV, who was the first king to use English as a first language. On balance it was probably Henry IV (for the reasons stated below) so it follows that his predecessor Richard II was the last king whose first language was French. ...


9

As "Vikings," the Normans were good SHIP builders. Once they reached land, it wasn't much of a stretch for them to transfer their skills to building churches and other buildings. The Normans adopted a style of architecture that is known as "Romanesque." It was originated by the Romans, but later imitated by many west Europeans, chief among them the Normans. ...


8

Yes. Or at least, as far as we can know based on available sources. Of course, if one chooses to disregard extant historical records, then all kinds of speculations are possible. Hence, the general consensus of historians is that Edward designated Harold his successor. Moreover there is no doubt that on his deathbed Edward the Confessor did name Harold ...


7

Henry III would certainly not be my pick. His mother was French, he married a fully French wife and he spoke French and the normal language of his court was French. The first glimmerings of an English king was Edward IV who (horror of horrors) married an English woman (Elizabeth Woodville). Up to this time virtually every single queen was born and raised ...


6

The original chronicle was The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy by Ordericus Vitalis (or Orderic Vitalis), volume III, translated by Thomas Forester. It can be found here. William of Malmesbury is also mentioned the story in his Gesta regum Anglorum, found here The accounts by Vitalis and Malmesbury are basically the same as you described: ...


5

I have found this passage in Runciman's A History of the Crusades: In 1040 six brothers [...] took control of the city of Melfi [...]. [...] Henry III supported them in order to gain control on the region that he contended with the Eastern Empire. The German Pope, that he had elected, did the same, as he was scorned that the Eastern Patriarch had ...


5

Excellent Question.... Short Answer.. It is not settled history and calls for both knowledge of King Edward the Confessor's relationship with the Godwin clan, and who that relationship had profoundly impacted his family, his life, and his reign. ** Given these facts, I seriously doubt King Edward would have reversed his life's work to keep ...


4

A lot had to do with King John of England. He was, of course, the King who signed the Magna Carta with his nobles in 1215, a year before his death. This occurred because of King John's misadventures trying to rule both England and part of modern France, and the resulting difficulties he had with his (English) nobles (including clergymen). The Magna Carta ...


4

In Mario Cassar, The surnames of the Maltese Islands: an etymological dictionary (2003): APAP (1) Greek — nickname (?); < Gk. Apapis [De Soldanis], < apapy, a dandelion-like weed; of uncertain application as a surname. The surname Avap (a possible cogante form) prevails in Italy. (2) Arabic — nickname; tautological form of Ar. ab ...


3

The short answer is "Not a lot". We know relatively little about the life and character of William Adelin (or William "the Atheling"). The main chronicles for the period are: William of Malmesbury (Historia Novella) Orderic Vitalis (Historia Ecclesiastica) John of Worcester (Chronicon ex chronicis) Henry of Huntingdon (Historia Anglorum) and the Chronicle ...


3

Henry V was the first English king to use English in administration. He did not ban French and Richard II could speak English.


2

In architecture "Norman" is just the insular British term for Romanesque architecture in Britain and Normandy since Romanesque architecture was basically introduced to Britain when the Norman Dynasty ruled England. It is like the insular British and American term "Victorian" for 19th century architecture. The reason why the Normans and "Normans" associated ...


2

The Normans, this "bunch of Vikings" as you call then, did not build cathedrals with their own hands. They hired stonemasons and other craftsmen to do it.


1

The brother Robert was not only "older" than Henry I, but also "old" (by the standards of the time, aged 55 or so when imprisoned). Killing "weak" people (such as oldsters) went against the code of chivalry. (Although "chivalry" wasn't codified in its final form until the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, it was "coming together" by the 1100s.) And after ...


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