42

The history is a bit sketchy about this period. The most well-known early source, Ibn Abd al-Hakam Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain, was written in 870. Being written about two centuries after the conquest, he had to rely a lot on oral traditions. In addition, many early sources focused on highlighting the Muslim victories and had little ...


39

There were a number of factors that led to the Allied invasions in North Africa in November 1942. Most of these factors were military, but the political element also cannot be ignored. 1942 was an election year in the United States. In the event, for a variety of reasons, the invasion had to be delayed until after the 1942 Congressional elections. To his ...


36

Because the Sahara desert goes all the way to the Atlantic coast. The Romans were not great seafarers and required the support of coastal towns to cover long distances. The Western Sahara represents a break in that chain, over 1000 km of inhospitable coastline. Even today, Western Sahara is one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world with an ...


27

I believe I found the answer in Wikipedia's article on the Marinid dynasty; quite simply the dynasty was in decline from the 13th century; in the 15th century (OP's reference period), the decline was complicated by a financial crisis. In the 15th century Morocco was hit by a financial crisis, after which the state had to stop financing the different ...


22

Citing Ezad Azraai Jamsari / Mohamad Zulfazdlee Abul Hassan Ashari, The Marinid Naval Force According to Historical Perspective (Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 29 | Doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n29p26), emphasis mine: ...after the death of Sultan Abu ‘Inan Faris in the year 759/1358, the Marinid naval force was unable to defeat the ...


21

The build up of the US army from a small, backwards, underfunded, isolationist peace-time army in 1939 to a six million person world conquering colossus in 1945 is one of the under-appreciated triumphs of WWII. Much can be attributed to the cadre of professional, forward thinking officers like George Marshall the US maintained. When it comes to tanks, it ...


19

This Jewish source characterizes Muslim rule in Spain during the Middle Ages as being "kind" by contemporary standards, but not by modern standards. Jews and Christians in Spain lived in a "second class citizenship," denied certain prvileges, but also free of "ghettoes," forced conversions, and outright persecution. Their fate in Moslem Spain was much better ...


18

One of the main differences between Algeria and other Maghreb countries controlled by France was the extensive settlements established there. European settlers began arriving immediately after the capture of Algeria in 1830. These settlers were encouraged by the colonial policy which makes it easy for them to massively "buy" Algerian lands at the expense ...


18

Casablanca is further from Tunis than London is from Berlin. Would you have regarded London in January 1943 as safe enough? The Vichy French had switched sides easily enough a two months earlier, so there was no realistic sense of domestic trouble in Casablanca, or French NW Africa. The premise that that German attack at the Kasserine Pass might have thrown ...


18

To put it simply, the Ottomans did invade Morocco multiple times, and they were also allies with various Moroccan Dynasties too. The relations boil down to rivaling Dynasties in Morocco in the 16th Century, with the pro-Ottoman Saadians dynasty in the south and the Fez backed Wattassid dynasty in the north. A series of wars were fought between the dynasties ...


17

Short Answer Tripoli declared war against the United States on 14 May 1801. Detailed Answer At first glance this seemed like a trivial question. Surprisingly, the answer appears to be shrouded behind several contradictory dates in internet circulation. I'll try to explain why I believe those answers are incorrect below. (A) 9 January 1801 I didn't ...


14

The Romans for the most part didn't expand because there was nice productive land they'd like to colonize. They expanded for political reasons. For example, North West Africa was originally part of Carthage. After the Punic wars, the Romans simply gifted most of it to their allies/clients, the native Berber kings of Numidia and Mauretania. Both eventually ...


12

Colonialism in its strict and historic sense means the practice of settling a large number of colonists in subject countries, as did the British in North America, Ireland, Southern Africa, Australia, New Zeeland, the French in Algeria, the Spanish and Portuguese in Latin America, the Russians in virtually all of their annexed territories, and many parallel ...


12

The "Moors" were a very diverse group. The first invading "Moors" were Arabs and Berbers from North Africa, the Berbers being descended from the Moors of Classical antiquity and thus probably mostly looking like other Mediterranean people. A lot of native Spaniards converted to Islam over the centuries, and so a lot of "Moors" looked like native Spaniards ...


11

This is more a comment than an answer, but I need the space: Significance of the "300.000 soldiers" data. Note that such a number does not mean that most of the population loved the colonization. People could have been enlisted by force, or just as a mean of living and escaping poverty. Even if they had enlisted voluntarely for their love of France, it ...


11

The British Navy by-and-large had control of the Mediterranean. However, there were some caveats. The successful German invasions of Greece and Crete showed that land-based command of the air trumped ship-based command of the seas. This meant the British could not safely enforce a naval blockade within easy reach of significant land-based airfields. With ...


10

The decline of Christianity in the Maghreb is related to the Arab conquest and the rule of Muslim governors. An important step in that decline was the rule of Almoravids and Almohads, under which most Christian and Jew populations were forced to convert or to be exiled. That's probably the difference between North West Africa and the Middle East (including ...


10

From the 15th to 20th centuries, the Moroccans had a love-hate relationship (but mostly the former) with the Ottoman Empire. For most of that period, they could get trade goods from India and the rest of Asia through the Ottomans (Saracens) by land. They felt no need to explore for alternate sea routes to "India."


10

Not really, no. Carthage itself started out as a Phoenician colony, along with Utica probably in the 8th Century BC. The Phoenicians themselves were a Northwest Semitic people whose language was closely related to Hebrew and fairly closely to Amorite and Aramaic. These western Phoenician outposts' main purpose was to help Phoenician traders manage the ...


10

One cannot be literate without books to read, and regardless on one's religious beliefs The Bible is one of the great works of literature of Western civilization. The invention of the printing press by Gutenberg, accompanied by the widespread printing of The Bible in the vulgar tongues of Europe, would put copies of The Bible in most [Northern] European ...


10

The short answer is that we don't know for certain. Our understanding of the early evolution of the Egyptian pantheon is limited by the paucity of early texts. What we can say is neatly summarised by Richard H. Wilkinson in his ambitiously titled The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt: Horus was one of the earliest Egyptian deities. His name is ...


9

Science is a modern concept, "a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions". Although the ideas of science came gradually, and it is not possible to point out a single moment when science was born, the first real science and the first real scientists are usually attributed to the 15th to ...


9

The Ottoman Empire, like China, did not fit the "classic" definition of colonial power. The European countries are considered "colonists" because they colonized or settled lands far from their homelands in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The Ottomans (and Chinese) conquered areas that were outside of, but adjacent to, their homelands. I would ...


9

He's probably talking about structures like this one at Senam Semana in Roman Tripolitania: You can see the superficial resemblance to the Stonehenge trilithons: image source Wikimedia CC BY-SA 3.0 de So it is, perhaps, understandable that nineteenth-century travellers in north‐west Libya took them to be prehistoric megaliths and assumed they were of ...


9

The Suez Canal was mostly important to the British, but it was very important to them. They needed to move large amounts of raw materials to Britian, where their industries were, and move the products to where the fighting was. This was strange to much of the US Army leadership of WWII, and they took some time to take it in. The Americans were used to being ...


8

Much of that seems exaggerated (as you'd expect for a book portraying a young child's point of view). Gaddafi imposed restrictions on private property but never totally abolished it. Law 4 in 1978 restricted people to one plot of land to build a house on; Law 7 in 1986 abolished private ownership of land, though people could still own their own home. After ...


7

I would think that the main reason for the decline of Christianity in North Africa since Roman Times was largely due to the rapid expansion of Islam in the first century of its existence. Arabs of the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates spread Islam at the point of the sword all the way across North Africa, up the Iberian Peninsula into France. The high water ...


7

The actual question that was posed on here five years ago now was whether “the Moors and Arabs, ‘Muslims’ who invaded Europe, i.e. Spain” helped the “evolution of civilisations of Europe”. The answer to this question is that the Arabs “who invaded Europe”, namely the Arab warriors who conquered parts of Europe in the 7th century, did not bring copies of ...


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