30

SHORT ANSWER "Total War" is a bit grandiose and ambitious, but as far as I know very few Native American or American Indian groups in the USA had any sort of rules against harming noncombatants in war. LONG ANSWER As far as I know, as a general rule Native Americans or American Indians in the USA didn't have any sort of social rules against killing ...


26

The evidence for this is weak, but interesting and indicative of "on a much smaller scale", but not "as well" as in equally transformative: From East to West: They introduced the mouse to the American continent. For sure, if we accept Greenland and Iceland as part of that continent, unsure if we only count Newfoundland: House mice samples from Iceland, ...


19

Flint points, obsidian, buffalo hides, salt, pearls, shells and (as mentioned by T.E.D.) copper were among item traded by Native Americans before Europeans arrived. That said, trade in North America prior to European contact varied greatly in its extent and volume, depending on area and epoch. From Trade Among Tribes: Commerce on the Plains before Europeans ...


14

Its exceedingly unlikely. There's no feasible route to the Americas at their level of technology that doesn't go through the Beringa (NE Sibera/Alaska) area. The period in question covers an unusually long interglacial, but there was a colder period in there where the land bridge would probably have been available (around 225,000 years ago) However, it is ...


12

No. The number of viking transfers back and forth were too small to make a significant difference. We only know from recent finds the Vikings did set up a small temporary settlement in Newfoundland. The discovery was made in the 60's. It's likely those vikings traveled to Newfoundland to gather wood (almost non existent on Greenland), wintered, and ...


8

The stuff that people usually are talking about when they speak of the Columbian Exchange are domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and diseases. The first two obviously require people living on both sides to be living at a Neolithic level. In other words, they both have to be farmers or herders. The third actually requires the same thing, but ...


5

From the evidence below, failing very strong evidence that it was routine for merchant European slave traders to hunt down slaves themselves along the Slave Coast, the percentage of slaves delivered to the New World that were purchased from black slavers must be very close to 100%. There is simply no business model, consistent with the slave trade as we ...


5

There's a bit of a false premise here, in that there were Native American empires. I suspect you meant why weren't there any north of Mexico, as there is no way you could overlook the Inca, Aztec, Maya, Olmec, Zapotec, etc etc, and my answer is built around that premise. Life in America is Hard When the Europeans first came to America, they had trouble ...


5

(I just want to add some information, from books by Kåre Prytz, and that does not seem to be mentioned in the other answers.) According to a note in Latin, written in 1637, based on a chronicle in Skálholt cathedral, which was apparently destroyed by fire in 1630 (Grönlands historiske mindesmærker, vol 3, p. 459), "the Greenlanders voluntarily abandoned the ...


3

Since the accepted answer does not mention Mexico, I can add an observation here. The modern nation-state's immediate predecessor was the Viceroyalty of New Spain (and later that of New Galicia). Spanish monarchs' investments in discovery and exploitation were more important for their colonization project than any legislation (but note the issuance of ...


3

Is there a time in US history when bicycle ridership was more prevalent than now? I haven't tried very hard to dig up hard data, but based on general trends, I suspect probably not. The Wikipedia article on "bike booms" is illuminating here. The 1890s was the first major wave of popularity for bicylcing, but at that it was almost exclusively done for ...


2

Priests and ministers of most Christian denominations kept records of baptisms, which often mentioned the birth date, marriages, and burials, which often mentioned the death date. Counties kept records of wills & probate, & deeds for property, mostly but not exclusively land, as well as records of civil criminal cases, at the country courthouses. ...


1

I recommend you read Guns, Germs and Steel form Jared Diamond. It's not 100% accurate, and there is some controversy over it, but it gives you a good idea why some people got a better hand in life than others. Why, in over 10,000 years of occupying North America did they never advance from a tribal culture and form a single united country Some tribes did ...


1

By some accounts, oils and furs were traded in the Pacific Northwest. Early accounts stress the enormous importance of oils in trade, feasting, and food. The Makah used to compete to see who could drink the most whale oil at feasts (Colson 1953). People were desperate for oils. Suffice it to say that “ooligan” is derived from a Tsimshian word ...


1

An area which may require a closer look is the southwestern cultures. Trade routes were actually quite well established in these regions, with many items being traded. An article Indigenous Trade: The Southwest , lists many of these trade materials(emphasis highlighting trade materials mine): Anasazi. Around the end of the first millennium a.d., Anasazi ...


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