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17

I found at least one source that advances the notion that Crichton is referencing a source who had an agenda, and may have exaggerated for effect. Ahmad ibn Fadlan wrote about his visit to the Rus: § 84. Every day they must wash their faces and heads and this they do in the dirtiest and filthiest fashion possible: to wit, every morning a girl servant ...


12

It was Norway. This is the story of Harald Fairhair in the late 9th century. Harald inherited one of a number of petty kingdoms west of modern Oslo. He proposed marriage to Gyda, the daughter of King Erik of a nearby kingdom of similar size. She wanted to be queen of Norway, so she refused to marry anyone who was not king of "all" Norway. She had created a ...


10

The German high command (OKW and OKH) was never of a single mind on anything but, not being privy to the intense pressure applied by Stalin for a second front in France, many high ranking officers believed that the Western Allies would begin the re-conquest of Western Europe by invading Norway and then blocking transport of the Swedish iron ore which were ...


9

I believe that the scene is 13 Warriors is taken from the account of Ahmad ibn Fadlān ibn al-Abbās ibn Rāšid ibn Hammād (Arabic: أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد‎) detailing his dealing with Northmen. This was a inspiration for Michael Crichton's Eaters Of The Dead which was a source for 13 Warriors.


8

The reason goes back to Queen Margrethe I of Denmark. (She is to the current queen, Margrethe II, what Elizabeth I of England was to Elizabeth II). Margrethe was the Queen Consort of King Haakon of Norway-Sweden with whom she had a son, Olaf. She was also the daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark. The succession plan was to have the son take over both ...


8

Since you say you already have multiple sources for Operation Torch, I shall limit this answer to sources for the resources required for the planned Operation Jupiter. tl;dr Scroll to the end for a Schedule of Total Resources prepared as part of a note by the Cabinet Secretary dated 7 August 1942. The OPERATION "JUPITER". Report, dated 24 September 1942 (...


7

You are correct. While there was some hardship in Norway during the First World War, in which Norway was neutral, there was no starvation and no direct attack from Britain. On the other hand, during the Napoleonic Wars Denmark-Norway and England were on opposite sides and British naval action blocked grain imports on which Norway depended. Hamsun wrote ...


6

The ritual bowl is not uncommon in Germanic tribal culture. Even in modern settings communal washing bowl would not be considered disgusting (participated myself in Iraq) Most of us are more unnerved by the nose blowing etc. I have seen it suggested that Ahmad ibn Fadlan, might not of seen them emptying the bowl. Regardless, Arabs of the time only ...


5

According to both links you give, the plant was opened in 1911 with 108MW capacity. Any generators operating in 1911 will not be in operation today. The NVE link further says that the plant was rebuilt in 1971 with a capacity of 200MW. NVE also say that it was closely associated with the Saheim power station (geographically and operationally, it sounds like)....


5

It was two different farms with the same name (Bull, Akers historie, p. 11). (The map shows the oldest names, from the Bronze age or earlier.) So Skøyenåsen belonged to Nordre Skøyen in East Aker.


5

Tom Au's answer above is mostly correct with regards to Norway; Albrecht actually had a formally stronger claim to the Norwegian throne, but was set aside since Margrete was so effective. As for Sweden, Albrecht had been king there since 1364, and Margrete only really came to power in Norway and Denmark in her own name in 1387/1388 (she had been regent for ...


5

It seems that Crown Princess Märtha and her three children, including prince Harald, didn't stay at the White House for very long. Several sources comment that they initially stayed at Roosevelt's Hyde Park estate, then (briefly) at the White House, before moving to Bethesda. For example, an article in the Washington Post observes: They stayed briefly at [...


5

Most likely the indemnity was meant to compensate the various nations for the loss of lives of their citizens and property, pro-rated roughly to the amount of each country lost. I can't find exact records of deaths, but there were Norwegian citizens in China during the rebellion. The China Inland Mission was proselytizing in rural China at the time, and ...


3

The Red Orchestra (so code-named by the Gestapo, in contrast to the Black Orchestra, which were German conservatives against Hitler) were among the most famous communist resisters of Hitler and the Nazis. Some of their members, such as Harro Schulze-Boysen, were military soldiers or (in Schulze-Boysen's case) Luftwaffe-men operating in occupied eastern ...


2

This Norwegian site (Royal House of Norway) states that: While King Haakon and Crown Prince Olav stayed in London, the Crown Princess lived with the children in the outskirts of Washington, DC, until 1945, when peace was declared. This would presumably be definitive.


2

Others have covered the Hamsun angle fairly well, I'll expand on the starvation: Norway was an exporter of fish before and during the war. Before the war, it went both to Germany an Great Britain, but Britain was able to negotiate a number of deals which curtailed and finally ended Norwegain exports to Germany (not only of fish, but also of other things, ...


2

Although a Nobel Prize winning author, Knut Hamsun was, to put it mildly, pro-German, to the point of being openly pro Nazi during World War II. His views about the British blockade in World War I, or other topics involving Germany, must be viewed in that light. The fact of the matter is that the British blockade did cause a certain amount of starvation in ...


1

According to Wikipedia's article on the Kalmar Union, it was a personal union, and Norway, Sweden and Denmark remained separate kingdoms that happened to have the same king. Since the king usually resided in Denmark and had mostly Danish advisors it seemed to some Norwegians and Swedes, then and later, that their countries were being dominated by Denmark. ...


1

Certainly in the later stages of WW2 a lot of Soviet prisoners of war were drafted into the Wehrmacht, given a choice of signing up and fighting for Germany or being sent to the death camps. Many of them in turn ended up as garrison troops in low priority areas like Norway where questionable loyalty under fire from allied forces was less of a problem. It's ...


1

Probably not. In general, the motif of a man and woman embracing is very common on guldgubbar, but there is nothing overtly sexual about them. Occasionally, there will be some kind of tree behind them. A Google image search of "guldgubber" will give you several examples This does not mean that this could not be an exception. However, I found a clearer ...


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