The Stack Overflow podcast is back! Listen to an interview with our new CEO.
40

He was a musician who played the pipes. As in the phrase 'He who pays the piper calls the tune'.


11

As the other answer and comments pointed out, all three Baltic states fought to resist the Soviet re-occupation after 1944. The Lithuanian effort were relatively more determined, costing the Lithuania about as many lives as the rest of the Baltic resistances. More importantly, however, during this period Lithuania was slower in its economic development ...


10

With one hinge folded we see a four-column matrix affording an unusual crosswise reading. It's probably custom work, as none of us have located a similar object online, and isn't really a ruler at all: the discontinuity at the other hinge makes any length measurement onto the second half incorrect. This device had perhaps three functions: to exhibit the high ...


8

A "boat crimper" is synonymous with a "boot crimper" - a person who specializes in manufacturing and repairing boots. The process of crimping is used to make leather conform to shapes that can't be created with folding, and involves stretching wet leather over a form with clamps or pliers. You can get an idea of what is involved here. A good example of the ...


7

Unless otherwise noted, the quotes below are from "Ousby, Ian Occupation The Ordeal of France, 1940–1944, New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000 and were found by consulting the Wikipedia page on the French Resistance. Aside: OP included paramilitary targets in the question. That would make the answer to the question a simple link to the Wikipedia page, ...


7

You have somewhat answered your own question. The Reeve and Bailiff were essentially the same job in Medieval England. The Reeve was a person that oversaw the land and crops and was in charge of the peasants. A reeve was basically an estate manager. A reeve is actually described in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, describing the reeve as a highly ...


6

A slitterman is someone who operates slitting machines. A slitting machine is used to cut sheets of material. The material could be anything, paper, leather, cloth, acetate, steel, you name it. Anything that is produced in sheets usually needs to be slitted. Slitting machines generally have a series of rollers which feed the material to a series of slitting ...


5

Here is my two penn'orth: Whatever D means, it translates to 9 shillings and fourpence, which is 112 pennies. 112 is the number of pounds in a (British) hundredweight. (These units, shilling and hundredweight, were still taught when I was at school in the 1960's.) So I suggest that D means pennies. Pennies were divided into four farthings prior to 1960, ...


5

From NAVAL EVENTS, June 1940 (Part 4 of 4) Saturday 22nd June - Sunday 30th, as compiled by Don Kindell, I have gleaned the following items in and around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines of France from June 22 to 25 (my emphasis): Saturday, 22 June British liner ETTRICK (11,279grt) embarked 2000 troops and King Zog of Albania from St Jean ...


5

When in doubt - check the Oxford English Dictionary: (Compact Edition, Vol. I, p. 1174) Crimp: 3 An agent or contractor for unloading coal ships: a contractor. Obs 1700 B. E. Dict. Cant. Crew, Crimp: one that undertakes to unload a ship of coals 1754 STRYPE Stowe's Survey: II v 319's: Any Coal Owner may employ crimps or Factors, not being lightermen ...


5

A boat crimper was a member of a group of sailors whose job was to forcibly impress men into the Navy. They were often referred to as the press gang. The use of such gangs to force Americans into the British Navy was one cause of the War of 1812. For reference, look up the entry for "James Kelly (crimper)" in Wikipedia.


4

An advertisment in the The Milwaukee Journal (Jan 15, 1949) suggests that a slitter man is a person that works with setting the knives on a paper corrugating machine.


4

I think I may have found it. According to this British Magazine Article from 1820, crimping appears to have been something one would do with a fish, after having caught it. It doesn't go into detail, but I found another book that does: Hints for the Table, by John Timbs in 1859. It appears to be a method for preserving a fish by cutting it open and ...


4

Lithuanian resistance was very determined, well-organized, and violent, and it persisted for almost a decade after re-occupation by Soviet Union in 1944. The "forest people" were hiding in the forests, gather info from largely pro-resistance population, and assassinate pro-Soviet functionaries of any level up to 1953. Some of the assassinations were based ...


4

In both wars, the Belgian government left the country, and continued operating from elsewhere. That was Le Havre in WWI, and London in WWII.


3

In WW1 Belgium never surrendered. During WW1 Belgian Congo was under threat by German forces in German East Africa, under command of ltn-col Paul von Lettow-Vorbek. It wasn't a big threat, as the German forces were barely strong enough to defend their own colony. Though von Lettow-Vorbek fought a highly successful offensive guerrilla campaign, the colony ...


3

Some time ago, a relative contacted the British Museum about this item and I have just received their feedback. The museum staff admit it had "several" of them puzzled so they contacted the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford. In sum, they came up with the following: The item pictured is known as a Ready Reckoner; these were used for "quickly pricing ...


3

In a series of speeches on June 18, 19, and 22, 1940, broadcast by the BBC, the escaped General Charles deGaulle called on "the French servicemen of the land, sea, and air forces" to leave France and join him in London to continue the fight. His rationale was that "this was not a Franco-German war...this is a world war," of which France had merely lost the ...


3

When American occupation forces after the war began to bring their families with them for three or more years of duty, there was no "base" or "post" housing at the time. Civilian neighborhoods, usually in the suburbs that were undamaged by wartime bombing were selected for American housing. Army officials with a German translator would knock on the door ...


2

It seems that in England the royal grooming staff were Gentlemen of the Bedchamber, Women of the Bedchamber, and Ladies of the Bedchamber. Lower-ranking noblewomen would have enjoyed the service of a Lady's maid.


1

I am a drafter by trade and this tool looked instantly familiar to me. Back before computers or caluculators, we used rulers like this. Though the one I used to work with did not have monetary values but different scale options. I am only guessing here but maybe this was a way for carpenter/journeyman to measure and find the cost of a particular job all with ...


1

Here is a listing for a four-fold ruler, but made of wood rather then ivory. It is described as 50 to 80 years old, used by carpenters and similar construction trades: Every carpenter and builder carried a rule like this with him at all times - slipped in his pant's pocket. At that time they were the equivalent of the now familiar steel measuring tape....


1

I believed at the time of writing that the best matching English term was "chamberlain" (Merriam-Webster: "an attendant on a sovereign or lord in his bedchamber"). Both words derive from reference to the bedroom in which the duties are performed: covilheira from cubicularius, and chamberlain from chambre. Sometimes the French term valet, or valet de chambre, ...


1

First, I would say that Lithuania was less colonized by the Soviet Union, meaning that we are only making a comparison with the other two. First, Lithuania is less accessible than the other two. It has less coastline than Latvia, and much less coastline than Estonia (before World war II, most of the Soviet Baltic fleet was stationed at Talinn). Also, ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible