28

Enforce is the wrong word to use here, because while the idea may have began with the US government, formally speaking the decision to participate or not rested with each National Olympic Committee. The US, and other Western governments in general, simply persuaded (pressured) their respective NOCs into supporting their foreign policy. Thus the USOC was ...


18

My answer is that this is just a dramatization with little to no research done by the producing team. The tradition of playing the winning team's national anthem was not begun until the 1932 Olympics (a common misconception is that the tradition started at the 1924 Olympics). So, in other words, it is impossible that the Star Spangled Banner was played at ...


17

The constant availability of water to marathon runners probably developed in the 1970s. According to an article in Outside magazine, drinking alcohol during competitive races was rather common in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: Fueling typically meant a shot of whiskey, brandy, or other alcohol. Spyridon Louis, winner of the marathon ...


14

Let's look beyond the marathon aspect in its over-specificity. The question asks for when was it recognised to drink water while exercising heavily would be advisable? That means the scientific side has to be examined and not necessarily the practical application or even the commercial availability of specialised products, Brawndo-style. This focus on ...


14

Limiting ourselves to the USA team, there were 18 African-American Olympians on the 1936 USA Olympic Team. These athletes won total of 13 medals. And in winning these 13 medals, the African-American athletes finished ahead of the top German athlete every time: 100-m dash: Jesse Owens won gold & Ralph Metcalfe won silver. Germany did not win a medal. ...


12

Yes, the wikipedia page has very good details about this. ORIGIN- They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC. EVENTS- There were many events in Ancient Olympic games. There is one page available which contains the list of victors in events, but it is not in very ...


11

For some perspective: In 1936, which is five years after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the IOC gave the 1940 summer olympics to Tokyo. While there were talks of boycot, and while the international pressure certainly played a part, it was Japan giving the rights to the 1940 summer olympics back to the IOC in 1938, which is one year after the outbreak ...


11

To add to the first answer, there is no single registry of athletes who performed in the Olympic or various other pan-Hellenic games. I am sure though that there have been attempts by modern researchers to compile such a list. In Sparta today you can see on the main street a monument dedicated to all the past Spartan Olympic victors to the present day. I ...


11

My uncle, "California" Jackie Wilson won the silver medal in the 1936 Berlin Olympics at bantamweight.


11

Economic impact is quite a hard quantity to measure chiefly because the impact can last over a very long period and be observed in many indirect forms. Immediate cost or balance sheet overview The immediate cost or a balance sheet overview can be simply compiled by counting the investment made in stadia, athlete accommodation, security arrangements, and ...


10

As near as I can tell, the Australian IOC's position was that, since there was no official recorded blacklisting of Peter Norman, there's no proof it ever happened, and they shouldn't have to apologize for something that didn't happen. There was no punishment dealt out to Peter Norman following the 1968 incident with black power salute. He was not ...


9

If you haven't found it or tried it yet, you might consider newspapers.com. The site allows you to search topics, keywords, etc. and look at actual scanned copies of newspapers from past years, going back to the 1700s. I went to the site and searched "1936 Olympics Hockey." 6,363 newspaper matches came back in the results. The results are broken down ...


8

Disqualification Indeed one such incident is well recorded. I quote from Thucydides, Book Five, Chapter 49 and append my own translation. Both my English and Ancient Greek are rusty now... Ὀλύμπια δ᾽ ἐγένετο τοῦ θέρους τούτου, οἷς Ἀνδροσθένης Ἀρκὰς παγκράτιον τὸ πρῶτον ἐνίκα: καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιοι τοῦ ἱεροῦ ὑπὸ Ἠλείων εἴρχθησαν ὥστε μὴ θύειν μηδ᾽ ἀγωνίζεσθαι,...


6

According to these notes from an International Olympic Committee(IOC) executive meeting, it seems the United States Olympic Committee(USOC) agreed to the boycott mostly on their own due to safety concerns: After the April 24 session, USOC Exec Dir. Miller said that the USOC explained to the IOC/EC that it had taken its decision after obtaining all ...


4

Art competitions at the Olympics were always controversial, largely because of the professional standing of many of the participants, when the Olympics was supposed to be all amateur. Music was not the only discipline in which only some - or no - medals were awarded see:- http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_competitions_at_the_Olympic_Games


4

There appears to be a lot of conflicting statements about Peter Norman. From what I can tell the AOC has always had great respect for him, and consider him one of the greats. It also appears he did not qualify for the 1972 trials, and this was reported at the time. He admitted so himself, as he was suffering a knee injury. The idea that he was deliberately ...


4

Because it was decided that the two teams would compete separately. Originally, there were hopes for the two teams to not only march as one in the 2008 Olympics, but to compete as a single entity, a 'Korea' team. However, negotiations failed, and the two teams ended up marching separately as a result. Since then, there have been several diplomatic ...


3

Here's a counter from an informed source (I'm not making any value judgement as to accuracy): http://www.trackandfieldnews.com/index.php/display-article?arId=131686 The comment by T.E.D. about the longevity of Peter Norman's Australian record is grossly inaccurate. There are several world records today that have stood longer than Beamon's 23 years - just on ...


3

Yes, there were "considerations" of such a move, cancelation of the games, relocation of the games, or boycotting the games. In 1933 the whole IOC session in Vienna was dominated by answering this question. While they considered a range of options, we know they decided against such 'harsh' measures and were content with nazi assurances. The official ...


2

Why should the IOC cancel the games because someone 85 years later doesn't like Hitler much? And yes, a lot of people don't like him now, but at the time that wasn't the case. He was very popular, including outside Germany. And still that's irrelevant, the Olympics aren't supposed to be about politics. There were Olympic games much more recently in ...


2

I found a programme for the 1936 Berlin Olympiad which seems to show that the opening ceremony began at 16:00 (4pm) local time. Hitler didn't make his speech until late in the proceedings, after the Parade of Nations and a speech by the president of the German Olympic Committee. The Parade of Nations had something over 5,000 athletes from 51 nations ...


2

Here's a link to 36 USC Section 301, regarding the national anthem: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/36/301 There are a number of references in the code about the "military salute." It seems like the Star Spangled Banner was chosen for its "martialness." The Olympics probably weren't a factor. The song was adopted by an act of Congress in 1931, a ...


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