58

The borders of Turkey were established first by the Treaty of Sevres and then by the Treaty of Lausanne. Turkey lost as a party of WWI, and the negotiations followed. Turkey did not accept the first of the mentioned treaties, and a war followed. Essentially the Turks won this war. The main loosing party was Greece, but the Western Allies did not want to or ...


56

The Ottoman Empire was not an Arabian empire, but a Turkish one. So they had no reason to uproot their capital from Turkish lands and move it to an Arabian region. In addition, Constantinople Istanbul was way better than Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad at everything. It had a strategic position on the Bosphorus Strait, and was also close to Europe, which ...


40

The leading people of the Ottoman empire were not Arabs, but from Turkish tribes. They speak a variety of the Turkish languages (Ottoman Turkish). Turkish is its own language family, Arabic belongs to the Afro-Asiatic/Semitic language family. Big areas of the empire were Arab, but there where also big non-Arab areas and peoples (Greece, Albania, the former ...


40

Lemme have a go at this. Its rather ironic that you bring up the Fourth Crusade as it is quite probably the reason Constantinople was lost to Christianity in the first place. Taking place in 1204-5 it was supposed to go to Egypt to fight there the Ayudid sultan who controlled the Holy Land but through a disastrous chain of events it got sidetracked into ...


32

The explanation seems to be related to the attempted spelling of the Arabic for Osman, which came out as utman or Uthman. From wiktionary.org From Middle French Ottoman, from post-classical Latin Ottomanus, from Ottoman Turkish عثمان, from Arabic personal name عُثْمَان (ʿuṯmān). Osman is the Turkish spelling of the male Arabic given name Uthman, ...


32

There is some truth in it, but the printing press adoption delay was only a late symptom of an attitude that began much earlier. In short is was more of contempt for the culture and aesthetics of print and the demand for censorship than an outright real, complete ban. The first book in Arabic was published in an Italian town named Fano in 1514. During ...


28

Location: it is a strategic point, the central point for which Black Sea trade must pass. If you are under siege and you have a fleet, you can get supplied indefinitely; if the enemy assaults the walls you can flee to the Asiatic mainland. To illustrate this point, think how much did the Byzantine Empire did resist while being just that city. And even then, ...


24

It looks to be a photograph of Abdül Aziz, the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876, which fits with the 1866 date. Here is a similar photograph by an unknown photographer from the National Portrait gallery collection: © National Portrait Gallery, London, Creative commons licence CC BY-NC-ND 3.0


22

Yes. Quite closely resembling: See that structure in the South-East? The temple mount? That's were the Knights Templar took their name from. This is almost a fixed point in time. Plan of twelfth-century Jerusalem Adrian J.Boas: "Crusader Archaeology. The Material Culture of the Latin East", Routledge: London, New York, 1999, p13. ...


21

Two more factors: The Ottoman Turks considered themselves to be the successors of the Roman Empire. Before they captured Constantinople, their territory was known as the Sultanate of Rum. After capturing Constantinople, Mehmed II called himself the Caesar of Rome (Kayser-i Rum). Constantinople had been the capital of the Roman Empire for more than a ...


20

Wikipedia has a pretty comprehensive list of the names used for the Ottoman Empire at different periods and in various languages. At the end of the article there's also a chronological list of links to historic maps using the alternative names of the Ottoman Empire. Since you are mostly interested in diplomacy and official writing, I also looked for a few ...


19

Massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire goes back to at least 1894, but they increased during WWI. What is referred to as the Armenian Genocide is however sometimes limited to the events that happened during the mass deportation of Armenians in 1915-1916. The deportations ended in March 1916, and this ended the main part of the Armenian genocide, but ...


19

Who protects your daily security? Who does your loyalty belong to? Initially (in the middle ages), the answer was your local nobleman, and, through him, via the duke and/or kind, to the Holy Roman Emperor. Someone had to provide peace, and the choice was limited: whoever has won military control over your area most recently. As long as they did not ...


18

Funny story, that. It all starts with the Suez Canal. Shipping things between the far east and Europe the long way around Africa was certainly doable, but very very time-consuming and expensive. Once built, the canal was half owned by the French and half owned by Egypt. However, Egypt's finances were your typical third world despotic mess, so in 1875 the ...


16

There were two Dardanelles campaigns during WWI. The first one, in 1914, was to try to secure them as fast as possible, but a German fleet as well as Turkish guns made it too hard. A second campaign, the so-called Gallipoli campaign, was a real fiasco, but it's primary objective was to "create a diversion", or a second front to help the Russians (that's ...


16

The question asked seems to presuppose that the Ottoman empire was a source of intellectual and technological progress in the Middle Ages and explicitly states that the Christian religion hindered intellectual progress in the West. This looks wrong to me on all counts. Turkish power only rose in the 14th century, at the very end of the Middle Ages, and the ...


16

To put it simply, the Ottomans did invade Morocco multiple times, and they were also allies with various Moroccan Dynasties too. The relations boil down to rivaling Dynasties in Morocco in the 16th Century, with the pro-Ottoman Saadians dynasty in the south and the Fez backed Wattassid dynasty in the north. A series of wars were fought between the dynasties ...


16

This question can be very much opinable, but I want to address some points: Did the architects of the Armenian Genocide during World War I plan their actions in part as a reciprocal population transfer. Armenians were not expelled from their homes, they were exterminated. It was not a population transfer. If Armenians are now concentrated in the Caucasus ...


15

Translation of Qu'ran was always problematic question in Islamic theology. In Islamic world there is doctrine called I'jaz that holds that Qu'ran is miraculous, both in content and in form and that no human speech can match. According to I'jaz Muslims oppose to text from Qu'ran be reproduced in another language or speech. Also there are some words which have ...


14

The Dardanelles campaign was as much about resupplying Russia as knocking the Ottoman Empire out of the war by taking the capital, Istanbul. It's also easy to say in retrospect that not enough soldiers and ships were sent to that theatre, but at the time the commanders evidently thought they had enough. Calling the effort "half-baked" only makes sense with ...


13

The Fall of Constantinople had a negligible effect on the launching of the Age of Discovery, school textbooks notwithstanding. It was well under way a generation earlier, due to the perfection of the caravel in Portugal under Prince Henry the Navigator and the explorations he launched down the coast of Africa. The Madeira Islands had been rediscovered in ...


13

There was a certain amount of natural antagonism between the west and the Byzantines. Part of this was religious: They belonged to different sects of Christianity, and thus often viewed each other as little better than heretics or Muslims. Another part was commercial. What little commerce the west had was in direct competition with the Byzantines, whose ...


13

SHORT ANSWER The Ottomans used camels because they have several advantages over horses. Among other things, they can carry more than horses and adapt well to a variety of climates (even cold ones) and terrain, and were thus ideal for transporting the large quantities of supplies needed by the Ottoman armies. DETAILED ANSWER Camels were used in large ...


12

There was no "good" time for Europeans to take back Constantinople. As late as 1683, the Ottomans had the upper hand, besieging Vienna. Up to that point, Europe was more concerned about defending itself than about rolling back Ottoman power. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the one European power that might have been able to take back ...


12

A small edit to put this answer into a broader perspective. In a broader perspective, French acquired the status of lingua franca amongst the European powers in the areas of commerce, science and international politics somewhere in the seventeenth century, and arguably did not relinquish this status until the early twentieth (in favour of English). Now, in ...


12

The first submarine was developed by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman, in 1620. The first submarine that went into action was the Turtle, developed by David Bushnell in 1776. It went in action, but never sank a ship. The first submarine to do that was the Hunley in 1864. (With the loss of the submarine, and its entire crew). The first modern submarine that ...


11

There were many reasons for an invasion: punishing Naples for its support of the Knights of Rhodes, whom the king Ferdinand I of Naples sent two ships of reinforcements against the Turks, determining a burning defeat of the Ottomans creating a bridgehead for further operations in Italy, against Naples and possibly Rome (we have to keep in mind that the ...


11

It had a significant effect. It was not just Constantinople itself that was important but several other strategic areas as well. Constantinople was a key trading center on both the northern and southern silk roads, so that when it fell in 1453 trade was greatly disrupted and goods from the east became much more expensive. The southern silk road route, which ...


11

Please keep in mind that the IVth Crusade mentioned in the first answer has resulted in taking of Constantinople by mostly Venician troops in 1204. This has resulted in a long-lasting civil war between the Latins and the Byzantines. Finally Constantinople was taken back by the Byzantines in 1261, but the Empire did not regain all its territory and wealth. ...


10

There were actually two mosques built within the Parthenon, the first was mostly destroyed when the explosion took place in 1687. The second mosque, which you are referring to is discussed in The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present, by Jenifer Neils. On page 324 it is stated that the small mosque had been damaged in sieges in 1821, 1826, and was ...


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