58

The borders of Turkey were established first by the Treaty of Sevres and then by the Treaty of Lausanne. Turkey lost as a party of WWI, and the negotiations followed. Turkey did not accept the first of the mentioned treaties, and a war followed. Essentially the Turks won this war. The main loosing party was Greece, but the Western Allies did not want to or ...


33

There is some truth in it, but the printing press adoption delay was only a late symptom of an attitude that began much earlier. In short is was more of contempt for the culture and aesthetics of print and the demand for censorship than an outright real, complete ban. The first book in Arabic was published in an Italian town named Fano in 1514. During ...


23

Yes. Quite closely resembling: See that structure in the South-East? The temple mount? That's were the Knights Templar took their name from. This is almost a fixed point in time. Plan of twelfth-century Jerusalem Adrian J.Boas: "Crusader Archaeology. The Material Culture of the Latin East", Routledge: London, New York, 1999, p13. ...


11

Short answer Yes, there was an attempt to bribe the Ottomans but it was an attempt to keep them out of the war, rather than to change sides. During WWI, the British offered, or considered offering, a number of bribes or inducements not only to the Ottomans / Turkey but also to Greece. The offer of (British) £4,000,000 to the Ottomans was not for them to ...


9

Let's look at the map in 1913: (click for large) Detail view 1913: Omniatlas: Europe 1913: Aftermath of the Balkan Wars "Greece according to the Treaty of Sèvres", in Wikipedia: Partition of the Ottoman Empire These tiny remnants of Rumelia on both maps are not overly meaningfully described as "Empire's Balkan holdings". The Empire's ...


7

Murad IV and his mother Kosem Sultan maintained a working relationship throughout his reign. Even after he started to exert his authority from around 1628 (when he was 16 years old), he still sought her advice and she was trusted enough to effectively act as regent during his frequent absences while campaigning. At the same time, she was frustrated at her ...


5

The question is broad, and there's a laundry list of contributing factors that tie in together. (As you go through this list below, keep in mind that I probably missed many other factors.) The biggest factor is that the Renaissance occurred in Europe. As did the Enlightenment, which introduced the notion of rule of law to boot. The answer I just linked to ...


4

The question is quite complex to google. Per the comment I dropped, the edit that added the detail seemed somewhat suspicious at first glance due to the lack of citations. After digging a bit deeper though, I found a few other corroborating sources, including a few in Google scholar, and a book by Bruno Mugnai and Alberto Secco (La guerra di Candia 1645-69, ...


4

An addition to other already excellent answers: The Western "Wailing Wall" is constructed at the very top from smaller stones placed initially by the Roman X legion. However, the large stones below that - typically about 12 tons each - which make up most of "The Wailing Wall" are the remnants of the wall built by Herod the Great's engineers. Touch the wall ...


4

First, there would have been no Wikipedia page for Spain, because: The internet and the Wikipedia wouldn't be exist for 5 centuries, and There was no "Spain"; there were Castilla, Aragón and Navarra (and, before 1492, Granada), all of them independent kingdoms1. True, the Castillian queen (Isabella) and the Aragonese king (Ferdinand) were married, but that ...


3

There was a social custom that non-Muslims would avoid wearing green, and a legal precedent which was rarely enforced: Green was the colour of Islam, which adorned the turbans of the descendants of the prophet Mohammad (eşraf), who for this reason are often referred to in the English sources as “Greenheads”. Non-Muslims were not allowed to wear green, ...


3

Just to complement Geerkens' answer. Portugal had the Order of Christ. Originally the Portuguese Templars, they were incorporated in a new order when the Templars were suppressed. With the end of the reconquista and loss of relevance of the crusades, the Order progressively lost its warrior-monk nature. In the end of the c. XV, its lay members did not have ...


3

The Maronites sharing power with two more parts of state instead of just the Druzes might seem strange. But before, in the 19th century, the situation largely favoured the Druzes, especially in the so called mixed areas of the two qaim-mayqamam. The Druzes and Maronites also didn't share power as much as they were forced to cooperate by the Ottomans and told ...


2

the Fall of Constantinople was the most important event that ultimately led to the Age of Exploration, mainly the discovery of the New World by Columbus and of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama. Maybe ... Maybe not ... Let's see ... On one hand, the European Age of Discovery had already begun over three decades before the aforementioned event even ...


1

I'll try to give a broad answer to a broad question. Let's start with the following question, why industrialization started in UK? Maybe the answer is in many sources, but I think that one of the best is Eric Hobsbawm (The age of revolution, the age of capital and the age of empire). The main point is that an industry requires capital (to start the venture),...


1

The Mimar (architect) Sinan was born to a Christian family: The son of Greek or Armenian Christian parents, Sinan entered his father’s trade as a stone mason and carpenter. In 1512, however, he was drafted into the Janissary corps. Sinan, whose Christian name was Joseph, converted to Islam, and he began a lifelong service to the Ottoman royal house and to ...


1

There is a very strong theory about Osmans real name being Ataman, a Turkic name and that his descendant Murad II(in whose reign the first historical records were written since the foundation)made historians record it as Osman in order to give the state an islamic feeling. But of course, even if it is true, the British were absolutely unaware of this. So, ...


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