18

It is difficult to prove a negative (that Britain did not intentionally create problematic borders), but there are good reasons to believe that there was no conspiracy to create problematic borders. To support my claim, I mainly draw upon an excellent summary given by Chester, and the "Problems in the process" section of the Wikipedia article on the ...


15

The narrative states that Enterprise was off the coast of Viet Nam on Dec 10, 1971. The way I recall the situation, Enterprise was in the area of Hong Kong and it was more like Dec 20 or close there about. I was on one of the other ships in the task force and we were off the coast of Viet Nam. We were transferring our cargo to other ships because we were ...


15

Because Afghanistan had already been a fully independent country for 30 years, the population of which was no more interested in the being subject to the hegemony of Choudhary Rahmat Ali's Punjabi imperialism than were the Bengalis. The latter unfortunately had to wait a quarter century to gain independence. Ali's clever coining of an acronym in 1933, from ...


13

Yes he did. According to Jinnah vs Gandhi, the possible reasons include: Mountbatten was a liberal and was opposed to the religion based partition demands of Jinnah(the Father of Nation, Pakistan) Nehru/Gandhi were good with diplomacy and negotiations Mountbatten was not pleased with the demands and negotiation style of Jinnah so it was a personality clash ...


12

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in ...


12

The question, whatever objections are made to its phrasing, boils down to: India won 3 wars easily and hasn't pushed its advantage to take over Pakistani Kashmir. Why? This is highly speculative, but I wonder what India would gain from taking over Pakistani Kashmir. Policing Indian Kashmir has been a money drain, international embarrassment (India ...


12

Because Delhi was deep within majority Hindu territory. As @MarkC.Wallace pointed out, the partition of India was made along religious lines. Here is a map of pre-partition India by religious majority: Source: Wikipedia And here is a map of the final border: Source: Wikipedia While as argued the process was not entirely fair, one plainly sees that the ...


10

Except during periods of War or high tension, overland travel via India between the 2 wings was possible. However, after the introduction of a visa and passport requirement in 1952, this became much more expensive and time consuming for most people. Prior to 1955, Pakistanis found travel through India more expensive than it should have been because Pakistan ...


10

I was a navy journalist (JO3), working in the Public Affairs Office onboard Enterprise when we entered the Indian Ocean in December of 1971. We departed Yankee Station on the tenth of December 1971 and arrived at the Straits of Mallaca on the 12th. We never operated near Hong Kong during that WESTPAC cruise. We issued several press releases during our time ...


8

If I remember correctly, Nehru had several communist sympathies -- or at least, was very tied into and involved with the Soviet Union. Also the U.S. had, in the post-Nixon era, greater ties with China, and hence the Soviets were open to trade with India. Of course, politically, India were quite foundational in the Non Aligned Movement, which spared it from ...


8

That was because of the Peace treaty which was signed between the two nations, moderated by Soviet Union. Following were the figures for losses of both nations: India: 3000 men killed or captured by Pakistanis (Neutral). 8200 men Killed or captured by Pakistanis (Pakistani claims). Indian admission is not available. Pakistan: 3800 men killed or ...


8

The Counter Reformation in Europe culminated in the murderous, no-holds-barred, Thirty Years War. That war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, and ushered in a period of religious tolerance in Europe that, exclusive of Ireland, lasted for over three hundred years into the 20th Century. Note that the Treaty of Westphalia also occurred ...


6

20 Baluch with some tanks had secured the area immediately around the cantonment in the morning. This is the 26th of March during Operation Searchlight, the start of the war. As I suspected, they had tanks and used them from the beginning.


6

Gandhi was never in favor of Partition. Towards the time of independence Gandhi's influence in Congress decisions was reduced as he concentrated on other activities helping in the empowerment of population. He was kept in dark and was subsided from the important Partition-related discussions. He also quoted - "If the Congress wishes to accept partition, it ...


6

Gandhi accepted partition, but deeply deplored the communal violence that was taking place at that time. In fact, he had been scheduled to leave for a "peace march" to Lahore from Delhi, but was killed just four days before he could begin the march. He had also pleaded before the Government of India to try and maintain friendly relations with the Government ...


6

In October 1947, the armed forces of India and Pakistan remained largely under the command of British officers. General Messervy served as Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, but was answerable to Field Marshal Auchinleck, the Supreme Commander of the Indian and Pakistan armies. The details of the division of the Armed Forces of India between India and ...


6

Thatta was the capital for multiple dynasties, including the Muslim Soomra which ruled Sindh from there continuously in 1026–1356.


5

East Pakistan had population of majority whose mother was Bangla which is close to Sanskrit Western Pakistan was forcing Urdu on to Bengali people in East Pakistan which would mean demeaning there own language and culture, which was not acceptable by many in East Pakistan. Hindi is not National language of India there is no definition of National language ...


5

As a former crewman of the USS White Plains, I can attest that the Russians subs would have had a hard time blocking and surrounding anybody, because before we caught up with the Enterprise Task Force, we passed up two Russian subs in the Malacca straits ourselves and left them behind. The Russian admiral is full of hooey.


5

At least two wiki pages cover your question: Theories of Pashtun origin Pashtuns, section History and origins The first of these mentions the Greco-Bactrian origin among other legends, and concludes: Prior to DNA studies, it was generally acknowledged that their origins were obscure, and modern scholars suggest that a single origin of the Pashtuns is ...


4

Two of India's enemies, China and Pakistan were allied, beginning with the Chinese invasion of the Kashmir in 1962. Later, beginning in the 1970s, the U.S. "tilted" toward China. A Soviet Union-Indian "rapprochement" was the natural counterweight. "The enemy of my enemy is my friend."


4

The Pakistani General Election of 1970 (delayed in East Pakistan/Bangladesh until Jan 1971 due to flooding) resulted in no seats for the Bangladesh Awami League in West Pakistan. The polarised geographic concentration of party influence (BAL in the East, PPP in the West) lead to the Bangladesh Liberation War.


4

His views in the Harijan are as follows:: “Like other groups of people in this country, Muslims also have the right of self determination. We are living here as a joint family and hence any member has the right to get separated (Harijan, April 6, 1940).” “If majority of the Muslims of this country maintain that they are a different nation and there is ...


4

Based on news reporting on India/China of the last decades, India has taken great care in avoiding a conflict with China. There have been many border conficts between them in the last decades on their present border. Taking northern Kashmir would extend that common border. With this in mind, togeather with the reasons given in the first answer, would ...


4

The historical origin of the Pashtun is a complex and answered question. Thiis idea of a link to Alexander looks like a made-up theory to me, although a distant Greek link is not impossible as one piece of the real story. See "Theories of Pashtun origin" on Wikipedia.


4

The answer is in the Wikipedia article on the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965: "Following the start of the 1965 war, both the United States and Britain took the view that the conflict was largely Pakistan's fault, and suspended all arms shipments to both India and Pakistan." The source cited by Wikipedia for that statement is Pakistan : a country ...


3

Yes, stone is typically more expensive than brick for two reasons. The first is that quarries (easily-accessible outcrops of building-quality stone) are rare in most locales, and the second is that the economics of construction favours the rapid laying of small objects (bricks) over the slow laying of more massive objects (quarried stone blocks) for smaller ...


3

In Alexander the Great's time the region of Afghanistan was known as Bactria. Alexander overran this region but had trouble managing it. Nominal ownership remained that of the successors of Alexander's empire, eventually phasing into the Macedonian-based Seleucid Empire. During my time in Afghanistan, old architecture could still be seen dating back to ...


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