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Re. your first question, the somewhat traditional account seems to be that the Achaemenids indeed had a province/satrapy called Parthia (e.g. mentioned here and here). But the people who would later found the Parthian empire did not live in Parthia at that time yet! Rather, towards the end of the Seleucid empire that area was invaded from the north by ...


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The question is not about a geographical road. The silk roads went through the country you mentionned in your North, central and South examples. They put in common trade a lot of actors, not only Persia and China or whoever. Southern Europe (Byzantine Empire, Italian harbours) Arab world and Persia were milestones as well as partners of the trade with China, ...


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