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115 votes
Accepted

Why was Poland spared from the Black Death?

Poland wasn't actually "spared", it was merely less affected than the rest of Europe. That graphic is incorrect (or rather, incomplete), since a substantial number of both Poland and Milan's ...
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32 votes
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What concessions did Hitler demand from the Poles before 1939?

As of 24 October 1938 the demands were annexation of Free City of Danzig by Germany and extraterritorial roadway+railway from East Prussia to mainland Germany through the Polish Corridor (so a "...
  • 6,114
32 votes

Identifying this uniform, possibly German or Polish

Bunzlau is now in Poland and called Bolesławiec. Back then it was in Silesia, thus Prussia and therefore in Germany. The photographer is given as "Otto Scholz", a German, not a Polish name, ...
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29 votes
Accepted

What is the name and meaning of a World War 2 CCC Medal with both the Polish Eagle and British Statant Gardant Lion?

This would appear to be the badge of the No. 300 Polish Bomber Squadron which fought alongside the Royal Air Force and operated from airfields in the United Kingdom. Above: Badge with colour. ...
26 votes

Why was Poland spared from the Black Death?

There are three types of plague, Pneumonic, Bubonic, and Septicemic all of which are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. People infected by fleas get the bubonic form of the plague. However, if ...
26 votes
Accepted

Any information about the photo with Army Uniforms

These are Polish Army Uniforms, starting around 1919. Unfortunately the main wiki pages show no Uniforms of the times. To my knowledge, these types of zig-zag collars (Polish only, but translates ...
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25 votes
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Where can I find information on a Polish castle dismantled by Sweden?

This story almost certainly relates to the invasion of Poland (1655-60) by the Swedes and their allies during the reign of the Swedish king Charles X, but it has been considerably embellished in that ...
24 votes
Accepted

What does this acronym and the symbol in the middle represent?

The symbol, though defaced, is probably the symbol of the Hitlerjugend. Click the link to see the actual image, I don't want to post it here, since it would be a legal grey area for me to do so for ...
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19 votes
Accepted

What plane would have been used to airdrop someone into occupied Europe?

The earliest air drops of aid to Poland were made in February 1941 using Whitley bombers. To the best of my knowledge, none of these drops involved parachuting agents into Poland. By 1943, Halifax ...
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19 votes
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Did Augustus the Strong sleep with his own daughter?

No. there is no evidence to backup this claim. Like it says on Wikipedia: The Countess frequently appeared in men's clothing and even in military uniform. Some sources alleged that August the Strong ...
  • 78.5k
18 votes

Did Mussolini know that Hitler was going to attack Poland?

Mussolini learnt about the German intentions first as did most other countries, by diplomatic reports from his ambassador in Berlin and similar sources; alarmed, in early August 1939, Mussolini sent ...
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17 votes

German invasion of Poland details

Before asking this question, you could consult Wikipedia, which says: From the start, the Luftwaffe attacked civilian targets and columns of refugees along the roads to wreak havoc, disrupt ...
  • 37.5k
17 votes

Why was Poland subject to much harsher Russification than Finland was?

While the integration of these territories into the Russian Empire took place at the same time, they were subject to wholly different methods of integration, one a conquest but a conquest which wasn't ...
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17 votes
Accepted

Why did China decide to support Poland in 1956, but not Hungary?

Interpretations are called for here — and these are necessarily opinionated to a degree. From a recent Polish perspective, it might seem rather simple – and one-sided: There are strong indications ...
  • 78.5k
16 votes

Why did Hitler treat the Slavs inconsistently?

Hitler's racial policy was based not on anything to do with biology, but rather on who he wanted to be friends with in foreign policy. Semaphore♦ 9 hours ago ...he didn't actually have policies. He ...
  • 53.1k
15 votes

Did the Red Army and German Army clash in Poland in 1939?

This does not appear to be true. There's no mention of it in Weinberg's A World at Arms, which is about the best one-volume history of WWII. The German multi-volume history Germany and the Second ...
  • 28.4k
13 votes

What concessions did Hitler demand from the Poles before 1939?

There is an explanation for a second question: Why Poland thought it would threaten their independence? As foreign minister Józef Beck said 5 may 1939: „My w Polsce nie znamy pojęcia pokoju za ...
13 votes

Help with identifying my great-grandfather's pre-WWI Cossack uniform

Cossack was not just a regiment one can get drafted into, it was something hereditary and traditional. The cossacks lived in specific areas (Don, Kuban river basins, Siberia, etc), had their own ...
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12 votes
Accepted

Did Poland help Germany take Czechoslavakia before Germany invaded Poland?

You are conflating a bunch of different things. The creation of Poland and Czechoslovakia Poland was not a result of Germany's defeat in the Great War. When Russia signed the humiliating Treaty of ...
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12 votes
Accepted

When in September 1939 did the British diplomatic mission leave Warsaw?

The ambassador most likely left Poland for Romania by about noon on Sept. 17, 1939, within a few hours of the Soviet invasion that morning, having already left Warsaw for Kuty in preparation for just ...
12 votes
Accepted

What was the border regime between Poland and Czechoslovakia like during the 1970s and 1980s?

For the countries of the former Warsaw Pact borders were normally restricted to permitted traffic. Borders themselves were patrolled and places where one could cross it were limited. Mind you that ...
  • 851
11 votes
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What happened to the Polish Calvinists?

There never were many Polish Calvinists. Poland showed some promise for the Calvinist cause at the start, but these early hopes bore few fruits. Calvinism, and Protestantism in general, failed to take ...
  • 96.3k
11 votes
Accepted

Could Polish people who didn't live in Poland get Polish citizenship after Poland's revival in 1918?

In Poland since 1918, it's been the case that the citizenship could only be earned by descendants of Polish citizens. However, a big one-time change – which turned "almost everyone" into a citizen – ...
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10 votes
Accepted

What was Poland's involvement in the Vietnam War?

Mostly to supervise the enforcement of ceasefire and peace terms. Polish involvement began in 1954 as a member of the International Commission of Control, together with Canada and India. That entity ...
  • 96.3k
10 votes

Did Britain bill Poland for maintaining Polish Air Force that fought over Britain?

It appears this war debt was partially voided. The Government of The United Kingdom will make no claim for replayment of the Ł 73 million sterling, in respect of amounts spent on war material, ...
10 votes
Accepted

Why was Polish king Sigismund II Augustus' coronation held when his father Sigismund I was still alive?

The practice of a king having his son crowned during his lifetime was not uncommon; two well-known examples are Henry the Young King, son of Henry II of England, and Philip II Augustus, son of Louis ...
9 votes

Why was Poland spared from the Black Death?

ANOTHER EXPLANATION REGARDING POLAND IS THAT IT HAD A LOT OF JEWS, PARTICULARLY IN URBAN SETTINGS; NOW, WHY WERE Jews Less Affected? And even if Jews died at a lesser rate, it can be attributed to ...
  • 101
8 votes

What happened to the Polish Calvinists?

Well, the when is relatively easy. It happened during the 17th century. Here's a religious map of Poland in 1573 (Calvinist areas in purple): ...and here is what it looked like by 1750 (no Calvinists)...
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8 votes
Accepted

How did communist authorities decide who is "German" and who is "Polish" when expelling Germans from recovered territories?

The answer is based on my talks with people of Polish origins in East Prussia and Upper Silesia and might not represent all the cases. I also do understand the answer does not cite any sources. Since ...
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