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The Mamluk Sultanate in 1337 was approx. 1 802 679 sq km. The Mamluk Sultanate in 1444 was approx. 838 316 sq km in directly ruled territories plus 354 751 sq km governed indirectly without Cyprus, an additional 9 251 sq km, which from 1426 to 1473 was at least under nominal Mamluk suzerainty if not an official dependency. See maps towards the end of ...


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According to Herodotus, the Hidush was the highest tax district in the Achaemenid empire and so it definitely has to corespond with the fertile region of the Punjab. Herodotus mentions that the Thatagush belonged to the same tax district as the Dardae (Dardic people of Chitral), Gadara (Gandhara) and Aparytae (Afridi) and if the Aparytae are the modern ...


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