79

One must be careful in reading the word "democracy" as it has multiple meanings - and many writers will deliberately conflate and inter-change the meanings with intent to deceive. One sense is the very literal Athenian democracy - which might be regarded as government by plebiscite. Here every significant public decision is made by a direct appeal ...


33

Olusegun Obasanjo, President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007 is a possible candidate. He was imprisoned in June 1995 on charges of being involved in plotting a coup and was released in June 1998. Although a general, he then ran as a civilian for president in February 1999 and won the election with almost 63% of the vote as the candidate of the People's ...


16

Józef Piłsudski was released from German prison on 8 November 1918 and became Chief of State 73 days later, on 20 January 1919. Some timeline in between: he was appointed Commander in Chief of Polish forces just 3 days after being released, on 11 November 1918 (or just one day after, depending on how you count; he left prison on 8th, but was then escorted ...


16

I think the answer to your question is former Egyptian president Morsi, he escaped prison on January 30th 2011 and was sworn in as president on June 30th 2012.


15

There is a Wikipedia article for the word Negro, which may shed some light on the issue. Within that article is a section on the history of the use of the word in the US. It appears the usage by MLK is at the end of the time period where the word Negro was more accepted (emphasis mine): "Negro" was accepted as normal, both as exonym and endonym, ...


13

The simple reason is that Mussolini came first. He came to power in his famous March on Rome and subsequently became a bit of a role model for nationalist would-be dictators. When Hitler and Ludendorff tried to take power in Munich before a subsequent "March on Berlin" a little more than a year later, the parallels (beyond Blackshirts and ...


12

Yes and no. I'd say mostly no. One thing you should realize on questions about primaries is that the primary system itself is very new. Up until about the 1970's, state primaries and caucuses were optional side-shows, used to "market test" candidates. The actual decisions were made at nominating conventions by delegates who were largely officially unpledged ...


10

Václav Havel was jailed on 16. January 1989 and released in May on parole. He was shortly jailed also in October 1989. This paid congratulation announcement was published by Rudé právo when he was in jail. The name is just a cover-name from his theatre plays. He was elected the president on 29. December 1989 still by the Communist parliament. It was not a ...


10

To avoid admitting ideological closeness Before we get to the problem of National-Socialists, let´s first address Fascists. It is a well known fact that Benito Mussolini was a Socialist before he started supporting Italian entry in WW1 in 1914. What is perhaps less known is that rump northern part of Italy, after the capitulation of Kingdom of Italy in 1943, ...


9

Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the Trucial States (modern UAE) and Oman were all protected by treaties with Great Britain. Yemen proper was never claimed for the reasons Pieter explained above. That said, Ibn Saud did manage to take away about 2/3rds of the territory claimed by Kuwait, and this was recognized by Great Britain as part of the Uqayr Protocols (1922). ...


9

This is a list-type question, and "key-player" a rather wobbly defined term. Therefore, this answer is a community wiki. Please help to fill in the gaps. Franz Sigel Friedrich Hecker Lorenz Brentano Carl Schurz Edward Salomon Gustav Struve Karl Bernays


8

From Gibbon's 'Decline and Fall' Chapter 68: From the first hour of the memorable twenty-ninth of May, disorder and rapine prevailed in Constantinople till the eighth hour of the same day, when the sultan himself passed in triumph through the gate of St. Romanus. He was attended by his vizirs, bashaws, and guards, each of whom (says a Byzantine historian) ...


7

A full transcript of Muhammad Ali Jinnah's August 11, 1947 speech can be found on the website of an instructor at Columbia University here. In the speech, he makes at least two statements that seem to support a vision of a secular government with religious liberty: [[2]] ...You will no doubt agree with me that the first duty of a government is to maintain ...


7

India The classical Latin was "India" taken from the Sanskrit "Sindhu" and Persian "Hindu" possibly referring to any large river which formed a natural border. The Greeks picked it up from the Persians as Indós (Ἰνδός) and Herodotus talks about India, some of it is actually true. Eastward of India lies a tract which is entirely ...


6

First Italo-Ethiopian war However, the bilingual [Treaty of Wuchale] did not say the same thing in Italian and Amharic; the Italian version did not give the Ethiopians the "significant autonomy" written into the Amharic translation. The Italian text stated that Ethiopia must conduct its foreign affairs through Italy (making it an Italian ...


5

Wikipedia has a list of annulled elections and the 1993 election in Nigeria seems to fit your question reasonably well. Another example seems to be Myanmar in 1990. Afghanistan actually has a repeating pattern of Pashtu und Farsi-speaking politicians forming a government of national unity,then accusing each other of fraud after the next election, then ...


5

What exactly happened at early things is sparsely recorded, if not to say for really earlier times wholly non-existent as traditional sources. Without written sources, things get complicated. But we have hints. Among those is that for a medieval perspective this civilising tendency was apparently comparably late, and parallel in temporal development with the ...


5

From the Wikipedia article on Poland in the Early Middle Ages: Under duke Mieszko I of the Piast dynasty, the expanded Polan territory was converted to Christianity in 966, which is generally regarded the birth of the Polish state. The contemporary names of the realm, "Mieszko's state" or "Gniezno state", were dropped soon afterwards in ...


4

As of 1912, Article 77 of Part 2 of the New Hampshire constitution said: No person shall hold the office of judge of any court , or judge of probate , or sheriff of any county , after he has attained the age of seventy years. This is still current, but article 78 now. Also, there was a US Senate rule added in 1963: No Member of the Senate may serve as ...


4

Due to the Hugenotten influence (from 1685 onwards) in Berlin and Prussia (there is no such thing as a 'Prussian' language) , the French language and culture (unaffected by Napoleons 'visit', as you term it, and the war of 1870/71) were very strong to the end of the 19th century. As apposed to other countries (where only the aristocrats spoke French), in ...


4

Jinnah was a lawyer whose 'proffers' were of a take it or leave it nature and which did not bind him or the State he envisaged in any way. Precisely because he was a lawyer, he did not sketch out any 'vision' of his own. That was not his business. His position in politics was as the Chief Representative of the Muslim League which demanded to be treated as ...


4

(Putting this as answer, because while not extremely detailed and scarcely sourced - which would be hard to do effectively - this was an event I was following at the time, living in Europe). I can't speak to your TV series, but Eastern Europe in general wasn't all that happy with Communism. Once the USSR under Gorbachev indicated that it would not fight to ...


3

After more research it appears, that weapons might have not been allowed in Norwegian Things (or at least Gulathing) at all and were only used as a way of showing agreement in Germanic tradition. Wikipedia:Thing


3

I was hoping I'd have more of a chance to write something thorough, including sources, but I'll have to make this short. I'm basing this answer primarily on my understanding of Japan both pre- and post-Restoration on the works of Ryotaro Shiba, four of which have been translated and actively consider this period ('Clouds above the Hill', 'Ryoma!', 'Drunk as ...


3

And we got a new winner! Sadyr Japarov was released/liberated from prison on October 6, 2020 and became president of Kyrgyzstan on January 10, 2021. AlJazeera:Who is Kyrgyzstan's new prime minister?


3

We seem to look at two questions quite different from another: "why was the Weimar Republic founded" and "what does the author of that podcast mean with his statement"? This answer assumes that the second of those is in this context the more important question, the first being for this purpose 'adequately' addressed by Wikipedia: Weimar_Republic#History. ...


3

... at what exact time of the day the UN charter became official? Article 109 of the original charter, which since subsequent amendments is Article 110 in the current charter in 2021, says The present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of ratifications by the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom ...


2

Song chanceller Jia Sidao apparently kept information on the Mongol invasion from Song Emperor Duzong. The story goes that one day a palace maid told the Emperor that Xiangyang had been besieged for years, after which Jia Sidao had the maid executed. See this source, or Wikipedia's articles on the Battle of Xiangyang, Jia Sidao, and Emperor Duzong.


2

Kerr did not need to remove the Prime Minister to be advised to conduct an election. Gough Whitlam was going to see Kerr to advise him to call an election, after lunch and a few beers. Before the tinnies were sunk, Malcolm Fraser has sought to speak to Kerr, told Kerr that he commanded the majority of the House of Representatives and should be appointed ...


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