124

Moldova The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova came to power in the 2001 Moldovan parliamentary election but went into opposition after the July 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election despite being by far the largest single party. Although the Soviet-era Communist Party of Moldova was banned in 1991, the Party of Communists of the Republic of ...


75

I believe the Velvet revolution in Czechoslovakia matches your criteria. It started with popular protests in November 1989. During December, the (Communist) president nominated a new government where the Communist party held 10 out of 21 seats. Then in June 1990, free elections were held and the Communist party was voted out of power, no longer being part of ...


61

If you consider it sovereign, East Germany did that. Well, they had already lost almost all control anyways, but after the wall fell they simply ran for the first election with other parties, and - obviously - lost. So you could say that they were knowingly giving up all their power in the form of an election, but it was an election nonetheless.


38

In the Republic of San Marino, an elected Communist-Socialist coalition government ruled from 1983 to 1988. They lost their majority when the Socialists scored badly in the 1988 elections, and the government was peacefully replaced by an improbable alliance including communists and christians-democrats. After 1992's elections, communists left the ...


36

Robert A. Caro's The Passage of Power goes into some detail on this, dating RFK's antipathy towards LBJ to before they had met for the first time. Leaving aside the political aspects (especially disagreements over Vietnam) which are mentioned in the Wikipedia page on Robert F. Kennedy, Caro relates the first meeting between the two in January 1953 in the ...


32

The Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) won elections in 2008, and subsequently lost power to the Nepali Congress in the 2013 elections. The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) has led four governments in Nepal, the last one losing power to the Nepali Congress in 2016. The two communist parties merged in 2018, forming the Nepal ...


32

In his book Pushing to the Front (1894), Orison Swett Marden wrote: Napoleon laid great stress upon that ‘supreme moment,’ that ‘nick of time’ which occurs in every battle, to take advantage of which means victory, and to lose in hesitation means disaster. He said that he beat the Austrians because they did not know the value of five minutes; and it has ...


26

I think the election to the upper chamber of Polish parliament (Senat) in 1989 can be considered such case. According to the agreements of the Round Table (Okrągły Stół) the lower chamber (Sejm) had an established number of seats (65%) pre-assigned for the governing communist party (PZPR) and their satellites and the remaining MPs were selected in an ...


23

The official, factual side As unsatisfactory as that might sound @JMS is rightly focussing on first Göring and then Dönitz/Goebbels, although the later declined to survive so that Schwerin von Krosigk was stepped up. But that is really it, as this is most typical of a dictatorship that is based on the love of the people for that very person. This is ...


18

Austria in 1945 had, like most of Eastern Europe, a provisional government which was approved by Stalin and had a large Communist contingent. Unlike other countries, however, the Austrian Communists did not freeze out and later ban all other parties; instead truly free elections were held, which resulted in the Communist Party ceasing to be a part of the ...


12

The Sandinista government of Nicaragua considered themselves revolutionary Marxists, allied with Cuba and the Soviet Union in the 1980s, and were called Communists by the Reagan administration, which funded an insurgency against them. Their domestic policies were left-wing, but not very similar to the Soviet Union’s. They lost an election in 1990, had a ...


12

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (SNLF) or Sandinistas in Nicaragua. They came to power when they overthrew Anastasio Somoza DeBayle in 1979 and then ruled Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990. Then lost the Presidency in an election to Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in 1990. The SNLF's President Daniel Ortega returned to power in 2006 through the electoral ...


12

I think the best examples are provided by post-WW1 emancipation of women in some Muslim countries. The most salient episodes are Turkey (where Mustafa Kemal made women abandon hijab by requiring that prostitutes wear them) and Iran (where police removed hijabs by force). The result was that by 1970-ies women wore miniskirts and were going to colleges in ...


12

Because Delhi was deep within majority Hindu territory. As @MarkC.Wallace pointed out, the partition of India was made along religious lines. Here is a map of pre-partition India by religious majority: Source: Wikipedia And here is a map of the final border: Source: Wikipedia While as argued the process was not entirely fair, one plainly sees that the ...


10

Question: Why did US invade Hawaii ? Short Answer: The United States was interested in expanding trade in the Far East. In order to accomplish this they needed coal refueling bases. Hawaii with it's excellent port of Pearl Harbor was a valuable intermediate station for the United States. In 1887 a group of American businessmen, missionaries, and ...


10

As the comments go into, it depends on your definition of "Liberal". If you go with the common usage in modern US political parlance, which essentially means "embodies everything the Republican Party is against", then no he wasn't. Not even close. If you go with the sense of Classical Liberalism, then that was indeed fundamentally his outlook. ...


10

Marden is possibly cribbing from chapter 7 of John Gibson Lockhart's The history of Napoleon Buonaparte which seems to have been published in 1829 and reissued many times since. Lockhart wrote about the 14 January 1797 Battle of Rivoli: "Here was a good plan," said Napoleon, "but these Austrians are not apt to calculate the value of minutes." I do not ...


9

In the years before the Kennedy administration, visiting African dignitaries, mostly from Liberia and Ethiopia, could hope for (but not expect) the red carpet to be rolled out / meet a senior government official up to and including the president. However, when travelling around / visiting places, most could expect to be exposed to segregation and other ...


9

At least one Black head of state was received on an official visit prior to the Civil Rights era. This was Liberian President Edwin Barclay who followed FDR's 1942 visit to Liberia by making an official visit to Washington, DC in 1943. Per Wikipedia, he had a mixed ethnic background, and "was the first black man to be officially introduced from the rostrum ...


9

Minimal, it would seem. Hype and temporary 'bragging rights' aside, the championship was politically (not to mention economically) insignificant compared to events which happened just before, during or shortly after, such as Nixon's visit to Moscow in May 1972, SALT I / II, and the 1973 oil crisis. A period of US - Soviet detente was already underway and ...


8

I think Cyprus qualifies here. Demetris_Christofias was president of Cyprus from 2008 to 2013. He was the candidate of the communist / Marxist-Leninist Progressive Party of Working People and Cyprus is the only EU country which has had a communist head of state. In Cyprus, the president is both head of state and heads the government. It is not a ceremonial ...


8

It is quite difficult to apply this modern concept with a comparatively recently invented word to ancient texts. One can find quite a few assessments of modern historians describing ancient rulers (or should we say "top-level managers and executives"?) as engaging in micromanagement and describing the practice and outcome in a negative light. But applying ...


8

I suspect that we have a conflict of assumptions and language. The Lord of the World is a work of speculative fiction. None of it is historical. @KillingTime pointed out the key to understanding the entire question; the novel was published in 1907, so it isn't based on historical events at all. It is speculative fiction about then (then) future. in ...


7

SHORT ANSWER Historically, South American countries have been more likely to experience coups and coup attempts than African ones. This conclusion takes into account the different number of countries for each continent and their various independence dates. Only by restricting the data to exclude all coups before the early 1970s can one say that African ...


7

Here's what the constitution has to say about Presidents and citizenship: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-...


6

Question: Had things gone his way, how did Hitler imagine his succession? Background: Health of Adolf Hitler Hitler's physical health has long been the topic of speculation. Physically Hitler suffered from tremors and irregular heartbeat during the last years of his life. Hitler's personal doctor Dr. Theodor Morell diagnosed him with ...


6

I'll answer this with a firm, clear, "yes and no." First, in an important sense the question answers itself: for a shift to be seen as large scale, it will usually have to be big enough that it can't be reversed. If it can be reversed, then history will probably look back and say that it was just a small movement that ultimately failed. (Can you really ...


5

Short answer There were a number of precedents for Caesar requesting to be allowed to stand for the consulship in absentia. However, it was outlawed sometime after 71 BC and before 60 BC. Cato the Younger was instrumental in opposing Caesar's attempt to stand in absentia in 50 BC, just as he had opposed Pompey's attempt in 62 BC. Among the more notable ...


5

This contains several questions. First, why was Lenin (more exactly, his party) popular in 1918-1922. The short answer is "because they distributed landowners land among peasants" (Only to seize it back after 15 years of dictatorship). Second, why was he popular after his death, and until now. Because his successors who established a dictatorship in the ...


5

The context for this disputable attribution and disputable accuracy quote is the Battle of Rivoli. The battle of Rivoli (14 January 1797) was the most comprehensive of Napoleon's victories in Italy during his campaign of 1796–97. At the end of the pursuit that followed the victory the French had captured more than half of an Austrian army of 28,000, ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible