59

You are correct that these are party lines. The letters represent an additional digit dialed after the others in cases where automatic operations was implemented. This article goes into great depth all about how multi-party telephone lines worked, but as a short excerpt: A scheme widely used in the Bell Telephone System for four-party full selective lines ...


23

Of course this hair style is found in a cartoon and thus not really bound to any reality either historically or as mart pointed out in comments physical reality: I envy the sheer volume of hair these toons must have, to have such full ponytails with mostly shaved heads! – mart That makes Where does this hairstyle originate from? an easy answer: From ...


17

The Oxford English Dictionary attests the use of cock-tail as a mixed drink from 1809 in W. Irving's Knickerbockers: They lay claim to claim to be the first inventors of those recondite beverages cock-tail, stone-fence, and sherry-cobbler. and from 1839 cocktail as a more general mixed drink in Marryat's Diary American: He frequents the bar, calls for ...


15

Adios is Spanish for Farewell or Goodbye. This is a cloned poster made in Argentina of the movie, from the Bruceploitation movement of the 1970's, Goodbye Bruce Lee: His Last Game of Death. This movie is actually a cloned version of the original movie Game of Death. It was released in 1975, two years after Bruce Lee's death. And starred Bruce Li (Don't ...


14

It's a chonmage, or Samurai top knot. It was restricted to Samurai during the Japanese Edo Period, and was prohibited following the Meiji Restoration. However the top knots worn by modern celebrities, ostensibly based on the Samurai tradition, are more often resembling those worn by Western European barbarians of the early Medieval Period. As described by ...


13

I would not put Hitler, Trotsky and Stalin under the title "incubator of intellectual activities". That said, it is indeed true that intellectual activities flourished in the beginning of 20s century in the Austro-Hungarian empire. (Budapest, Prague and Lemberg (now Lviv) also qualify for the surge of intellectual activities at the same time). Your ...


13

Probably the oldest examples of this that we still have are the epic poems. Poems like the Iliad or Mahabharata or Epic of Gilgamesh long before being written down were recited orally (most likely sung) by people who had the entire work memorized. In this way, early bards would have combined the roles of entertainer, historian, cultural propagandist, and ...


13

This is a long answer, so here is a list of connections that the public could have made, in no particular order: It was the work of the Gods and Goddesses It was the manifestation of the spirit within the object It was a form of magnetism It was a miniaturised form of lightning It was proof of hidden powers and magic of various kinds It was some ...


12

Wikiquote renders it No one dances sober, unless he is insane. The quotation is Nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit. from Pro Murena vi.13, 63 BC. Cato has accused L. Murena of dancing, and Cicero replies that Murena is accused of dancing but not of activities that would be precursors to dancing. Cicero says no sane man would dance ...


12

Short Answer: The modern cocktail--as defined by OP as including sweetener, ice, and decorations--predated Prohibition. While Prohibition-era bartenders did need to mask bad liquor, these techniques were not influential because they were only necessary in the presence of bad liquor. The long-term effect of Prohibition was to introduce American bartenders to ...


12

Can't talk about New York (as I'm in Australia), but when I was a kid the Brisbane phone numbers had a one two digit alpha prefix, then a 4 digit number - eg my grandparents were J 2871, and my aunt LX 1710. These letters were merely mapped on to the dial (note that Australian phones go from 1 to 9 then zero): 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 J 7 L 6 M 7 N 8 P o X 0 Y (I ...


11

The Wikipedia article on food tasters explains that human food tasters had multiple functions: The safety of the food may be determined by observing whether or not the food taster subsequently becomes ill. However, food tasting is not effective against slow-acting poisons that take a long time to produce visible symptoms. The food taster may also prepare ...


10

The earliest copy of this melody is from 1893, with the song "Good morning to all" by Patty Hill and Mildred J. Hill. It was published in a songbook titled Song Stories for the Kindergarten. The lyrics to "Happy Birthday to you" appears in the early 20th century. The first reliable source for these lyrics being used with the "Good morning" melody is from ...


10

The earliest reference I can find comes from a 1937 commentary on Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar", although there are many later references that this handshake was taught to the actors by Lawrence Alma-Tadema in a 1898 staging of the play. It seems to have been often used in this play since, and I could find an example from a 2005 staging. Almost all ...


10

The first and foremost example that comes to my mind is the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, written in the early XIV century. This poem, a work of paramount importance for both Italian and World literature, is famously composed of three books, or cantiche: Inferno Purgatorio Paradiso


8

This is somewhat difficult to pinpoint to a single date. But from the basics to narrow the search: wild animals have been used for entertainment from pre-history, bears or tame-bears being among the most popular from the beginning. So that doesn't really give us a starting point for a search. But the invention of the bicycle does: Bicycles were introduced ...


8

I'm not sure I agree with your premise at all. Dance has never 'gone out of style'. Sure ballroom dancing has. What were discos of the 70's and 80's if not group synchronized dancing? Now we still have raves and clubs. Even in the age of indie rock, there was still mosh pit's and club dancing. Dancing in the big band era was different than that in the 1800's ...


8

Baby-Name Books Down the ages, these mainly did not exist because, down the ages, most people were unable to read a book, and so couldn't use one. Now, it has been suggested that the Bible was a baby-name book. However, a baby-name book (BNB) can be defined as one which exists for people to name their babies out of. I think both the Old and New Testament ...


8

The quote from this article is illustrative of the issue. "First, I thought [the cow] had died naturally, and then I got closer to it and I could see it wasn't natural," he said. "The eyes were gone, the tongue was gone. The ears were gone. The sex organs were cut out. It was just kind of weird." The conventional explanation is that this matches what ...


8

This question suffers from a minimal misconception. The person that Roberts refers to is not a surname but a first name. The person was an architect and his full name was Robert Lederer. He published for example in the journal "Moderne Bauformen 4/1931" about "Robert Lederer u. J. R. Davidson: Zwei Schnellrestaurants in Berlin und Los Angeles" and built ...


7

What I'm seeing there for good attestations are the following: In Irish folklore, a Jack-o'-lantern appears to have been the same as what was called a will-o'-the-wisp in English folklore. In other words, ignited swamp gas visible at night, with lots of creative folklore built up around it. This is attested to as known folklore before we know of the term ...


6

A History of Modern Yoga: Patanjali and Western Esotericism This religio-cultural trend became a very important and influential motif of East-West exchanges from about the last quarter of the nineteenth century onwards - possibly the most important religio-cultural trend, from the Indian point of view, if yoga is understood in its broadest ...


6

What your instructor I think was trying to point you to is the old Hollywood troupe of Black Dude Dies First. Films would take a Scary Black Man, turn him into The Big Guy, and kill him off to show how strong the monster is. In action or horror films, The Hero (typically a White Male Lead) might have a Black Best Friend Lancer that gets killed off ...


6

The reason one sees Hiroshima and Nagasaki mentioned far more frequently than the Tokyo fire ride of 9-10 March 1945, is that those two attacks were the only use of atomic weapons. And, those two bombs caused Japan to surrender, while the Japanese had previously fought to the death, almost to a man, and when the numerous fire raids on Tokyo and many other ...


6

Has any music act ever topped the Beatles in sales? There is probably only one likely contender - Elvis Presley - but it is highly unlikely that we'll ever know for sure. COUNTING PROBLEMS There are numerous problems in arriving at a total, not least of which is how sales of albums and singles are counted. Should one album sale be equivalent to one single ...


5

At first I was thinking about mythology, but I'd definitely count Aesop's Fables becoming one of the first virals, with such epigons as Babrius or Phaedrus in ancient times, spreading later across nations and languages as their own fairy tales or poetry.


5

The history section of the wikipedia article on handshakes suggests that the Greeks were familiar with the custom at least since the 5th century BC (because we have a sculpture showing Hera and Athena shaking hands that has been dated to the 5th century BC). Source Romans also used handshake. It was depicted on Roman coins to symbolize agreement and ...


5

Woody Woodpecker was actually created in the 1930s and went through several changes before being presented to the public in his first cartoon short in 1940. His second carton, titled appropriately enough "Woody Woodpecker", had a higher level of energy and featured a jazzy musical score that apparently appealed to adult audiences. The fact that his cartoons ...


5

I think you are being misdirected by the theatre of politics. It works like this. Somebody does something "against" the leader. The underlings and sycophants make a noise about it, as they must. The leader takes it in their stride, rises above and appears more statesman-like. So, from my recollection, the answer is that it had a positive effect on ...


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