30

You might count Free France from 1940–1944: Capital: Brazzaville (1940–1943) Algiers (1943–1944) Like Byzantium (that is Roman Empire capital becoming Constantinople), Trier was colonised by the Romans and then made a capital for a time. Speaking of Byzantium, that city had such an honour again, when the Ottomans took Constantinople ...


20

Taipei Kuomintang's Republic of China moved its capital from Chengdu (and originally, from Nanjing) to Taipei, Taiwan on 7 December 1949, after several defeats against Chinese Communists. Officially a "temporary capital", Taipei is still the capital of the ROC/Taïwan 70 years later. Taiwan had been annexed to China in 1683 by the Qing dynasty, starting a ...


17

Borders Post-war Polish borders were agreed upon in Teheran (1943) and finalized in Yalta (1945) by the "Big 3". The land was taken from Germany on the grounds of Germany having started the war, to weaken it so that it would never be able to do that again. Population The Poles did not do the ethnic cleansing of those lands singlehandedly - at first the ...


16

After the war between Greece and Turkey in the aftermath of WW I the two countries agreed on an exchange of minorities. But the question of who was “Greek” and who was “Turkish” was decided entirely on the basis of religion (and not language etc.). This means the ethnic Greek (Greek-speaking) converts to Islam were classified as Turks and deported to Turkey. ...


16

Post-World War II Poland was "designed" by the British foreign office, presented by Churchill, and ratified by Roosevelt and Stalin at the Tehran Conference in 1943, as noted in another answer. After World War I, Britain had planned on the so-called Curzon line for the eastern boundary of Poland (based on the ethnic divisions) but the country crossed that ...


15

You're right to say that Germany's loss of territory to Poland in 1945 was "harsh" judged by the principle that borders should be delineated according to ethnic and/or historical claims. No one then or since has tried to argue that the areas in question had been anything other than ethnically German for centuries However Germany in 1945 was not any normal ...


10

This or other similar questions are very much debated, and does not have a simple answer. One shall start by asking who is a Greek, and who is a Turk. Throughout the history, in the geography where Turkey is situated today, hundreds of different civilizations had lived, and one replaced the other. Hellenization of Asia Minor and beyond reached its climax ...


10

The Sudetenland was planned to be fully repopulated so that the farms and other businesses could continue as before the expulsion – and so that even the 1945 harvest would go as smoothly as in the previous years. To achieve that optimistic goal, the July 1945 Beneš decrees already contained some sketch how to achieve this outcome. Just to be sure, the "...


8

When Alexander attacked Tyre, which was the largest and most populous Phoenician city, large parts of the city were evacuated to Carthage. Carthage was most definitely a colony of Tyre, even if you don't buy the whole Queen Dido story. After the fall of Tyre it fell under the rule of Alexander and then the Diadochi. Its citizens, that weren't killed/...


8

Ataturk was not the architect of this exchange. The idea of protecting minorities in former Ottoman Empire came from the western Allies - according to the wiki article on the Lausanne Conference, second-priority goals of Britain included "measures for the protection of the minorities in Turkey". Moreover, the article you linked names Fridjof Nansen, high ...


7

Most likely because there isn't any. Apparently, Hatutu was never settled in the first place. As @Fred pointed out, there appears to be no good reason to evacuate Hatutu, and my google search attempts failed to turn up any reference to any population at Hatutu except this exact thread. In fact, Hatutu was already uninhabited at least by the time of European ...


6

Babylon Cyrus the Great, King of the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire, conquered the Neo-Babylonian empire in 539 BC. Babylon became the administrative (and main) capital. Wikipedia (Achaemenid Empire) cites the following from the The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: Of the four residences of the Achaemenids named by Herodotus — Ecbatana, ...


6

They melted in with the local population. In Turkey there's no such notion of pure race. I'm from a village located within the Black Sea region of Turkey. We have bazaar which are in ruins today left over from Greek villagers. However there are some Greek origin Muslims living in Trabzon area which still speak the language.


6

The answer is based on my talks with people of Polish origins in East Prussia and Upper Silesia and might not represent all the cases. I also do understand the answer does not cite any sources. Since about late 1944 it was clear that the territories west of Poznań and Łódź are going to be in Poland. The Allied forces which were present in Western (of 1939) ...


6

It is worth noting that during the Second Polish Republic, Vilno and Lvov were the third and sixth largest cities in the country, with between 200,000-300,000 people. Gdańsk, Szczecin, and Wrocław had much smaller (Polish) populations before the war, so it didn't take much to "repopulate" the Polish populations of those cities (low tens of thousands). They ...


5

Officially, If you were a Muslim in Greece, you could be exempt from compulsory deportation if you were: part of the ethnic Albanian community a resident of Thrace The Greek government had placed no restrictions on religious conversions via marriage or baptism in the same fashion that the Turkish government did. Last minute conversions to prevent ...


4

This is what we are talking about: A B C D E F E: (Map of the Czech Republic present day borders with relative ethnic German inhabitants around 1930 marked in colour. Source: WP: Deutschböhmen und Deutschmährer) That means the vast majority of ethnic or linguistically German people were near the border of Germany, and not that many really ...


4

Although many of the Muslims in Greece were deported to Turkey, some ended up in other places. In Crete, most of the Muslims were Greeks who had converted. There was a massacre by Greek nationalists at the end of the 19th century and many fled to other parts of what was still the Ottoman empire. Although many ended up in what is now Turkey (especially ...


3

Hi Islam is not banned in Greece. Muslim Greeks are however discriminated against. Evidence of Islamic rule is very evident in Northern Greece. There are dozens of operating mosques on use in Thrace. These citizens are unfortunately exploited by the secular Kemalist State of modern Turkey. The majority of Greek Muslims were expelled to Turkey after the ...


3

In most cases it was regional. Entire towns and provinces were expelled if they were German. When you are expelling hundreds of thousands of people at once, you don't have the time to be going person by person. You just ship out the whole county. In cases where population was mixed, the name would usually indicate whether the person was German or Polish. If ...


2

Exact numbers are not known but an estimate is given by historian Ágnes Tóth at around 10 000 ethnic Germans that returned to Hungary. How many really is an answer that has to be postponed, since this is an unresolved question even in the latest of recent dissertation projects. Cf. Sebastian Sparwasser: "Identität im Spannungsfeld von Zwangsmigration ...


1

You see that a fair amount in resource-based industries that are the primary source of income in a remote (i.e. far from big cities) area. If whatever resource (minerals, oil, trapping, timber) dries up then the area tends to struggle and possibly shrink. I am not sure what can easily be done about it, and many, many smart small town mayors have been ...


1

It happened in different countries and it was different, of course. In the Czech Republic there were four stages of gaining the former German estates. At start practically anyone could move in and claim a house or a farm, often throwing off or killing the previous owners. In more lucrative places that way was stopped by bureaucracy almost at once. On the ...


1

Being the primary nesting site of a number of endangered species, such as, the Hatutu Marquesan warbler (Acrocephalus mendanae postremus) and the Marquesas ground dove (Gallicolumba rubescens), Hatutu was declared a nature reserve in 1992. It is also one of the most important nesting grounds for the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii).


1

Addition to the answers given so far: Since the Potsdam treaty (and other agreements between the "Big 3") was not signed by Germany itself, it was not a "real" peace treaty by international law. In fact, it does not declare that the mentioned territories are to be annexed by Poland .. merely occupied until a final peace treaty is signed (with the intention ...


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