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SHORT ANSWER Spanish policy was rooted in the tradition of setting up universities in conquered territories, accompanied by the aim of converting the local people to Catholicism in order to bind them to Spain through religious faith. The Spanish approach was quite different to that of any other European colonial power. Portuguese policy on education in its ...


24

What a wonderful question! Dom Henrique is one of the chief characters of this story, and that means we need to explore him more than the general Portuguese knowledge. These explorations as a whole were a manifestation of the soul of this great man who was well beyond his contemporaries in what he wanted and expected from his sailors. I'm basing this answer ...


18

This question is a little more involved than it might appear, and has a few layers we need to tear through to solve. The basis is obvious, if the Spanish Empire was huge, and the Portuguese Empire at one time was responsible for vast exploration and colonization as well, then at a time when these two empires combined, might we have seen the worlds largest ...


13

Macau was a Portuguese Colony right next door to Hong Kong. Why didn't Japan invade it during WW2? Because they didn't need to. The Portuguese were steadfastly neutral. They weren't a military threat. Macau had no real military value and the authorities there were cooperating. Why spend the resources to invade and occupy an already compliant port and risk ...


12

Historically, there weren't multiple Portuguese colonies in South America. There was just one. The Portuguese governed Brazil as a single unit since 1549, when the failed Captaincies were merged. This became the Viceroyalty of Brazil (1775), the Kingdom of Brazil (1815, still ruled by the Portuguese Crown), the independent Empire of Brazil (1822, when ...


10

By giving up Macau quietly, Portugal avoided an embarrassment similar to the one they experienced when India took Goa. More seriously, this was done as part of a treaty at a point in time where Portugal was carrying out a policy of de-colonization. Portugal basically offered to return Macao to China.


9

The book A História dos Símbolos Nacionais, published by the Brazilian Senate, states that indeed, [The flag] was conceived by Jean-Baptiste Debret, French painter and founder of our Academy of Fine Arts, inspired by some military flags used in his country at the time of the Great Revolution and the Napoleonic Era, from which he copied the ...


8

gktscrk answers the question directly but, although it is true that there were legends and fears, and simple minded sailors, it is absolutely false that the elite did not expect to find anything valuable beyond the Bojador, or that only India was a valuable objective. How significant was the Fall of Constantinople as an event leading to the Age of ...


8

On the contrary. Portugal started building the (very expensive) Macau International Airport after the handover of Macau decision was already settled between Portugal and China (1987). Even more, Portugal offered to withdraw from Macau in late 1974, but China declined the offer in favour of a later time because it sought to preserve international and ...


7

After the voyages of Columbus, who sailed for Spain, the Portuguese and Spanish divided up the new world in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). The later pattern of colonization followed this treaty in general outline. Your question has an incorrect assumption, that the Portuguese were only traders. They had a global empire that included Brazil, islands in ...


6

About the context of the bandeiras (unsponsored expeditions) from S. Paulo (formerly S. Vicente captaincy) In short: In much of the highlands, specially S. Paulo, outside of the sugar cane coastal regions, the dominant language was Tupi until the Portuguese intervened, and the Indians were a common race in the racial mix, up to the arrival of black slaves ...


5

Colonizers heading for the gold mines at Cuiabá in the early 18th century used the Panará River. They also used the Tietê River for part of their journey, but not between Sao Paolo and Porto Feliz. Those seeking their fortunes in Cuiabá made an epic trek of at least five months that pitted them against deprivation, hunger, rapids, whirlpools, and ...


5

Note that Brazil did not have a native population as large as the Spanish colonies did. Brazil had only tribes and neither empires nor large cities before colonization. Thus, I doubt there would have been enough students to create a university during the first centuries of colonization. It would have been more practical to send people to Coimbra Also, even ...


4

The flag design most closely associated with Napoleon would be his personal command flag. If he had one. Pending the discovery of the design of any personal flag of Napoleon, the flag design most associated with him would be the regimental colors carried on the same staffs as the eagles of his regiments. This site: http://www.warflag.com/napflags/...


4

It could well be that Annobon, being farther out from the two Bights, has better sailing conditions - more access to trade winds, less likely for fleets to be caught by a contrary wind against the two shores. Thus it is more convenient as a base for ships travelling on to the far east via Africa.


4

Spain and Portugal controlled their colonies differently because they developed differently during the 15th century. By the 15th century, Portugal was already a "complete" country. The century was characterized by seagoing voyages under Prince Henry the Navigator, around the coast of Africa. The end result was Vasco da Gama's sailing totally around Africa, ...


4

I think there are serious problems with this question. Yet, I've decided to draft an answer, though not as detailed as I did to the related question here. The real problem here lies in defining what is a "decision to go to India". My linked answer describes Portuguese knowledge of the Earth in the 15th century. Hence, it is likely that Dom Henrique ...


3

Were the islands/countries discovered by Hispanic explorers named after Mozarabic feast days? The short answer is no. But that no has to be clarified. It could be yes or no, according to which Rite the person who named the said lands belonged to. Both Rites were in use in Spain at the time of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The name "Mozarabic ...


3

First, the Mozarabic Rite was also Catholic, the correct terms would be Mozarabic versus Roman Rites. I have heard a Mozarabic Mass (and I keep the printed missal), and (personal opinion) I did not consider it sufficiently different (it was developed with strong influences from Roman traditions anyway) to justify keeping it alive with a separated calendar ...


3

  Chinese were technologically inferior but did drive Dutch back using superior numbers and acquired European technology It could be said that main Chinese ship type at the time was junk, which could used both for trade and military purposes. Dutch had ships with much better sailing characteristics, and although gunpowder was Chinese invention at ...


3

I think the difference between the Spanish and the Portuguese empires was that Portugal's strength was its navy while Spain's strength was its army. Spain did not have a good navy compared to Portugal's. The problem of the Portuguese army was seen when Portugal decided to invade Africa after the prosperous conquest of America by Spain. At the moment of the ...


2

I think this says it all: It even led to Annobon being in a state of virtual anarchy for some time (due to rejecting the Spanish colonization and being hard to manage from such a large distance from the Rio Muni and Fernando Po colonies). Ceding any other island to the Spanish would have simply disrupted the management of the Portuguese colony, when ...


2

We are forgetting that in times of the Iberian Union, not only lands were claimed, but also oceans and seas according to the "Mare Clausum" policy (closed seas belonging to a certain power and with forbidden navigation to all others). Those claims are also shown in the OP map, but I will add another one here: A French nobleman, Duplessis-Mornay, once said: "...


2

You don't specify which discoveries are of interest, but the specific days on which islands were encountered is definitely recorded in ships' log books. For example, a log survives of Magellan and Elcano's voyage and was published on Cambridge University Press as "A Log-Book of Magellan's Voyage, 1519–1522". Cross-referencing it with feast calendars would ...


2

gktsck answer shows that the general intent to reach India was already there. But to understand how the general intent become a tangible aim, note that the path to India did not go through today's Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Fernando Po. It went though Brazil, due to the direction of maritime currents. What you have to look for is "When the Southern ...


1

Definitely not a straight answer but relevant nonetheless: There is (arguably weak or solid, depending on what certain cultural priors you adopt) circumstantial evidence for an historical lighthouse in Mahabalipuram, India that might or might not have been described in some Portuguese maps: This is explained in a relatively recent video by the amateur ...


1

After a fashion, yes. The {Brazilian gold rush began at the end of the 17th century in the mountainous province of Minas Gerais (General Mines in English), a rich ore-producing region to this day. Perhaps a million people, close to half of the population of Brazil "went south" (Brazil's "west") from the Atlantic coast in the northeastern part of the country....


1

I don't think there was a huge difference between Spanish and Portuguese methods of colonisation. There was a bigger difference between the places Spain took as colonies and the places Portugal took as colonies. First of all, the penetration of European power in the Americas was much easier than in Africa or Asia. Many Asian states were powerful entities, ...


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