31

Both sides of this tactic has been used throughout human history. On the one hand, mistreating POWs may make soldiers run in fear rather than fight. On the other hand, those same soldiers will be less likely to surrender if they're cornered. Soldiers when in desperate straits lose the sense of fear. If there is no place of refuge, they will stand firm. If ...


31

According to Daniel Ford's "Flying Tigers: Claire Chennault and His American Volunteers, 1941-1942" (and this page) only four Flying Tigers were ever captured by the Japanese. One of those, Arnold Shamblin, never was heard of again and is considered dead, so he might've been executed. Others were treated just like any other Western PoWs (which meant prisoner ...


16

The Imperial War Museum, in association with the publisher J.B. Hayward, has published a series of volumes listing all British & Commonwealth POWs held in Germany and German Occupied Territories. volume 1: Prisoners of War. The British army 1939 --1945 volume 2: Prisoners of war naval and air forces of Great Britain and the empire 1939-1945 volume 3: ...


15

Yes, Czechoslovak Legion did bring POWs during the evacuation. Details are available on the Czech Wikipedia page about the Czechoslovak Legion. Look at the section "Evakuace" and use Google Translate. Between 1919 and 1920, they sailed from Vladivostok to Trieste, Marseille, Cuxhaven, and Naples. The POWs who were transported included Hungarian, Austrian, ...


13

The G.O you are looking for is in fact G.O. 207 (see below) of July 3, 1863. G.O. 205 is the minutes of a court martial convened on March 24, 1863. G.O. 206 is a direction to the commanding officers of regiemtns, and of unattached battalions, independent companies or batteries, and surgeons in charge of hospitals or detachments regarding G.O. 72 of March 24, ...


12

British and American POW's were treated as POW's. Soviet Jewish POW's were usually treated as Jews, if their national origin could be determined. The justification was that Soviet Union did not sign the international convention about POW's. Of course, this was the official point of view, but actual treatment depended on commanders in the field. Official ...


11

Parole is indeed the word that all parties would have used and understood in 1945. In fact, this is a military tradition that has roots going back as far as Roman Empire - for example, Marcus Atilius Regulus was released on parole by the Carthaginians in 250 B.C.. It was relatively common through the end of the American Civil War, where it was done through ...


9

In the book Napoleon After Waterloo: England and the St. Helena Decision By Michael John Thornton the status of Napoleon is discussed in great detail, including questions of law. There are several considerations: Napoleon had been declared a criminal and a madman in the Declaration of the Powers against Napoleon. "Accordingly, the Powers declare that ...


8

That was because of the Peace treaty which was signed between the two nations, moderated by Soviet Union. Following were the figures for losses of both nations: India: 3000 men killed or captured by Pakistanis (Neutral). 8200 men Killed or captured by Pakistanis (Pakistani claims). Indian admission is not available. Pakistan: 3800 men killed or ...


8

I'll try to explain briefly the big picture, because the full answer would be book length. So this answer is simplified and designed to give you a good idea about where to keep learning. The Nazis had a concept of Scientific racism. This led them to define the "Jewish problem" and to therefore define Jews as sub-humans. They then created the "...


8

There are international agreements on the definition of POW dating back to the Lieber Code declared by Lincoln in 1862 Art. 49. A prisoner of war is a public enemy armed or attached to the hostile army for active aid, who has fallen into the hands of the captor, either fighting or wounded, on the field or in the hospital, by individual surrender or by ...


8

Perhaps you should ask about the prisoner of war conventions in European society in the 1780s. If the prisoners survived being imprisoned, the probability of which would vary greatly, they would normally be released following the the formal ending of the war with a peace treaty. Furthermore, prisoners could be released under parole, promising to refrain ...


8

The question is extremely vague because the main concepts are too generic (conquering armies, conquered populations; and that covers the entire time span of war history up to the present); different moments involve very different scenarios: there are great differences between the ways in which such a phenomenon could have occurred is a tribal union, in the ...


6

If you are asking about people who were prisoners of the Germans, then British and Americans did the best, although this was certainly no joyride. According to Wikipedia, German prisoners in the hands of Britain were least likely to die. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_war_crimes_during_World_War_II#Comparative_death_rates_of_POWs


6

There was large difference between Eastern and Western fronts. Generally, Western POW (British, American, French, German) were treated by their western captors according to the "laws of war", that is Geneva conventions. Of course, there were many exceptions, but as a rule they were treated decently. This does not apply to the Soviet POW captured by the ...


6

I checked the book "THE COSSACKS AND HIGHLANDERS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR," Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific Conference, Rostov-on-Don, 18–19 September 2014. The number of cossacks taken prisoners of war during the 1st world war is estimated 6% (pages 33, 125). This was much lower than the number of prisoners of war in other parts of the ...


5

Some aspects of the below were specific to Sweden while others common to most belligerents in the war. Where possible, I used Swedish examples as that was the OP's topic of interest. Changes during the Thirty Years War The long period of warfare seems to have been the cause for changes in how prisoners were dealt with. This is a general overview which ...


5

I didn't find the names themselves, but the practice of the British claiming anyone born on British soil as 'deserters' caused a lot of controversy, with U.S. also taking 'hostage' prisoners, and the British claiming more 'deserters' from a later battle as well. You can be sure your ancestor was not among those Original 23. They were not returned to the ...


5

Cossacks were taken prisoners after that incident. They were not all shot on sight. This single, unsourced line on Wikipedia is not credible, and certainly at least an unsustained vast exaggeration if understood as 'valid description for the entire rest of the war'. During the war, that is after this incident from 1914, Germany and Austria Hungary took a ...


4

I doubt that a generalized answer is possible. Contrary to myth, nazis were not efficient. Many of their policies were made up as they went along. POW camps, concentration camps, and forced labor camps were not the same, but there were similarities in the policies. That being said: I recall reading about a Dutch prisoner in a forced labor camp who ran away, ...


4

This book on Pappy Boynton's life talks about his time as a POW and the general idea was that it was harsh and they were severely underfed. He mentions that Boynton ended up working in the mess and would steal handfuls of lard when he could (he'd have been severely beaten or worse for this if found out) and when he got back that he wolfed down 2 candibars ...


4

In general, the treatment of Jewish POWs was at the "low end" of what it was for others of their "nationality." POWs who were Soviet Jews were treated very badly--because they were Soviets. Things were a bit worse for men who were both Soviets and Jews, but it was basically "Soviet" that determined their treatment. POWs who were American or British were ...


4

First, let's clarify; declaring something illegal does not prevent people from doing that thing. Burglary is illegal, but it happens. Sexual harassment is illegal, but it happens. So all of the examples listed are... not really relevant to understanding or answering the question. The examples lead more to confusion than resolution. Second you are citing ...


3

Have you found this? It says that most POWs captured by Hungarian forces were handed over to the Germans. The rest were treated badly in general. The Hungarian Occupation Forces had an auxiliary role in the German POW’s policy. These Hungarian units had no POW’s policy because their activity served the realization of German orders only. Therefore they ...


3

Just to build on Lubos excellent answer. First of all, the Czech Legion consisted of Czechs who were fighting on the Allied side, under Russian command, in World War I. That was a bit unusual, because what later became Czechoslovakia was part of Austria Hungary at the time. In a sense, these Czechs had "defected." Some of them might have been ...


3

There is a book "Mercy Ships: The Untold Story of Prisoner-of-War Exchanges in World War II" which covers this topic. The two principal ships used were Swedish: Drottningholm and the Gripsholm. These ships were also used to exchange civilian internees. The total amounts of people exchanged amounted to a few 10s of thousands. In the case of soldiers, it was ...


3

Escape attempts at Elmira seemed to be fairly common from what I find. One account describes the punishment for prisoners caught in escape attempts, and implies that tunneling was a common way to wind up there. The majority of escape attempts led not to freedom, but rather to an escorted walk to the guardhouse. The building, which measured forty-five-...


3

Well can testify because my mum married a son of a Italian POW, the British treated some POWs well enough that at the end of the war they did not want to go home and stayed in the UK. Si


3

I think your question is impossible to answer because each side held some of their prisoners under conditions which bordered on a release. The usual reason was to use the prisoners for their own war effort, not charity. The US had Operation Paperclip which captured scientists like Wernher von Braun. It is a judgement call when captivity turned into a job ...


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