101

The hexagram is not an exclusively Jewish symbol. For that matter, the Star of David as a symbol of Judaism (as opposed to a symbol used by Jews) is far newer than people realize, dating only to 1897 and the First Zionist Congress. Given that, seeing a six-pointed star on top of a Christmas tree in 1924 is no surprise. Also, Jesus was of the house of ...


29

It started at least with the rule of Gaius Octavius, a.k.a. Augustus. He was a dictator (Imperator) but Rome was continued to be called republic, consuls and Senate continued to be "elected". But the supreme power became lifetime, and the Imperator appointed a heir, usually a real or adopted son. Since then, this is a custom in some dictatorships. The term ...


22

The term "propaganda" got its negative meaning only after World War II. Before that, even some democratic countries such as Ireland had ministry of propaganda, which was expected to present the government's side of the picture (the same work nowadays done by spokesperson)[2].


21

The names People's Republic (more common), Democratic Republic or Democratic People's Republic come from Marxist-Leninist ideology. The idea is that socialist states (they never claimed to have fully realized communism) serve the interest of the vast majority of the people, whereas traditional or bourgeois democracies are not really democratic and only serve ...


19

Tyler Durden's answer is excellent. But you request autobiographical evidence from Germans writing during the war. One German of note is the diarist Victor Klemperer. As a highly educated Jewish professor Klemperer was very far from representative of the general German population. However it is telling that his information (and he, understandably, took a ...


15

The short answer is that the orchestra served as a useful propaganda tool both at home and abroad, helped the Nazi regime achieve their initial goal of seperating Jews from German society and culture, and served as a means of social control. Allowing the Jüdischer Kulturbund or Jewish Cultural Federation was not as inconsistent with overall Nazi policy ...


10

The term people's republic was coined by the loyalist side in the Spanish civil war. It was intended to suggest a republic which would guarantee the welfare of all its citizens; their economic rights as well as political. It was adopted by the east European countries, as a supposed third way between bourgeois democracy and the dictatorship of the ...


9

There are a number of Biblical (Old Testament, so over 2000 years ago) mentions of such things, for instance Hosea 13:16, 2 Kings 15:16, Joshua 6:20-21, 1 Samuel 15:3, Psalms 137:8-9... The difference is that it's not accounts of one's enemies doing it to your people, but instructions for what your people should do to their enemies.


9

and began to publish Nazi speeches. Evidently "publish Nazi speeches" is different from just quoting Hitler or any other piece of Nazi propaganda. Definitely Hitler's speeches were not available in their full form to the general public. Maybe they were published in small numbers for internal party reading, which is totally different thing. People at ...


8

It varied from country to country. Deep inside the Soviet Union they could not watch Western TV and the only access was shortwave broadcasts. You could easily listen short-wave broadcasts in European languages. There were special broadcasts in Russian (Voice of America, Free Europe, German wave, BBC and few others). Very many people actually listened these ...


7

If people were paying attention, March 1929 when Die Weltbühne published an account of secret German rearmament. If they weren't, rearmament was officially revealed in a speech by Hitler on March 16, 1935. Here's a list of public violations of the Versailles Treaty and public displays of military power. March 1929: Die Weltbühne publishes an account of ...


7

I think you have some false assumptions, namely that "large numbers" of soldiers were involved in the holocaust, which is not true. Early in the war there were "einsatzgruppen" which had a few thousand, but these were disbanded or repurposed over time and most of the holocaust took place in great secrecy. All of the death camps, with the exception of ...


7

Cervantes published La Gitanilla (The Gypsy Girl) about 1613, so the meme was strong at the beginning of the 17th century. The main character was a princess stolen as a girl by the gypsies.


7

People in the German Democratic Republic could and did receive TV from the Federal Republic of Germany. Terrestrial reception of TV was limited in some parts of the GDR, notably the Dresden area. In the last years of the GDR there were even cases where Westfernsehen (western television) was provided by local cable providers. Obviously those were the regular ...


6

There are many examples of propaganda in the American revolution. A few that come to mind off the top of my head: Common Sense, so beloved of grade school teachers and proto-communists everywhere. Letters from a Pennslyvania Farmer Note well the list of several dozen similar propaganda vehicles cited at the bottom of that page The correspondence committees -...


6

The Nazi regime had planned to stage a big show trial for Thälmann, Elser and other enemies of their rule after a victorious end to the war. That is why they kept them alive. But by 1944 even the diehards knew that the war was lost. Hitler and Himmler gave orders to have Elser and others like Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Wilhelm Canaris killed. There was no time ...


6

I've found several articles state that the OED dates the first usage of the term "white feather" as a symbol for cowardice to 1795. A representative example is White Feathers : Stories of Courage, Recruitment and Gender at the start of the Great War. However, The Online Etymology Dictionary says the following: white feather (n.) as a symbol of cowardice, ...


6

Question: Are there notable incident(s) where Russia/SU was wrongfully accused by Western powers in the 20th century? I can think of two. When Gary Power's U2 spy plane was shot down over Russia initially Eisenhower falsely claimed the plane was lost civilian plane and denied it was on a spy mission. Eisenhower had to backtrack when Power's turned upon ...


5

Soviet Union supported the Chinese Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War, so since the Mao Zedong's rise to power in 1949 to Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s Sino-soveit relations were quite good. There is no surprise that the Soviet propaganda supported Chinese communist regime and considered them as the closest ally in 1949. Viktor Semyonovich ...


5

Yes, Trotsky and Trotskysm was always strongly condemned and criticized in Soviet Union while Soviet Union existed. The history of Communist party was a mandatory subject on all levels of education, and large part of it was criticism of Trotskysm. This also applies to all other Stalin's enemies in the party, leaders of the opposition, like Kamenev and ...


5

There's really two questions here. How does propaganda work and what did the German's know about how it worked? What is Propaganda Applied rhetorics for the persuasion of mass audiences through the use of mass media for the purposes of commercial interests (eg advertising, public relations) or to persuade audiences to support a cause or to hurt support for ...


5

Goebbles wasn't the only one admiring Hitler for his rhetorical talent. Shortly after the Grande War he participated in anti-Bolshevik courses ("antibolschewistischen Aufklärungskursen") in Munich. Those courses had the expressed purposes of schooling their pupils rhetorically so they could spread anti-communist propaganda in the German Army. Hitler was ...


5

In 1986 Gorbachev's speech on XXVII congress of the CPSU he still clearly assumes the Communism as the goal. May be not immediate, but the goal. The XXVIII congress in 1990 was already in the middle of USSR collapse. And the stenographic materials show that the notion of communism became somewhat debatable. Google translation of both sources should be ...


5

In addition to the other excellent answers, I would like to mention the Posen Conference of October 6, 1943. Its express purpose was to make sure that the Nazi leadership (Reichleiters and Gauleiters) could not claim ignorance of the Final Solution - and, being aware of the determination of the allies to prosecute war crimes, will fight harder. This is not, ...


5

There are a number of possibilities here, though none fully meet your criteria. Aside from the Mercator distortion mentioned by SJuan76 in his comment, you may be thinking of the McDonald Gill Highways of Empire map from 1927 which placed the British Isles in the centre of the frame and projected, in red, the overseas empire around them, in somewhat ...


4

The middle of the 18th century was the height of the British nationalist movement. Examples of this movement include composition of Rule, Britiannia! and creation of the popular of cartoon character, John Bull. John Bull is a simple, jolly, content, country gentlemen who represents Britain and is often placed in opposition to France, Scotland or the popular ...


4

As far as I know, solid evidence of programs dedicated specifically to dissemination of false information in Soviet Union and Soviet-aligned countries is rare. As an example, there's this piece by Reuters regarding CIA false news campaigns. But there is quite a bit of evidence on COINTELPRO operations conducted by FBI against targets (not only communist ...


4

Before the decision to kill all the Jews they could reach, the Nazi regime was interested in extracting as much as possible from Jewish-owned assets. It maintained a thin façade of legality, so simply confiscating them was more difficult than requiring them to be sold at low prices. However, musicians are only an asset if they can perform for audiences, and ...


4

Just prior to the start of WWII, Nazi Germany managed to use lots of induced street violence and fake stories about German unification supporters being suppressed to take over Austria without themselves firing a shot, and then used fake stories about ethnic Germans being oppressed and abused to do the same thing with the defensible western portion of ...


3

I guess you probably mean Alfred Hugenberg


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