10

There never were many Polish Calvinists. Poland showed some promise for the Calvinist cause at the start, but these early hopes bore few fruits. Calvinism, and Protestantism in general, failed to take root in the general Polish populace. Without strong leaders and facing competition from Lutheranism, Polish Calvinism soon lost its momentum. The protestant ...


9

It is a long and complicated story, but a very brief outline is the following. Copernicus book was published in 1543. For about 70 years after that the Church did not express any "official opinion" on it. The book was discussed by several writers, some supported and others criticized the theory, as it usually happens with scientific theories. The church did ...


7

Well, the when is relatively easy. It happened during the 17th century. Here's a religious map of Poland in 1573 (Calvinist areas in purple): ...and here is what it looked like by 1750 (no Calvinists): If you read a bit between the lines, it appears that the faith was strongest amongst the nobility and financial elite, and never really made big inroads ...


7

Cobblers were workmen whose customers wore shoes, and therefore traveled more than most others (only a few people wore shoes in the Middle Ages). By definition, these were the few people that "got around" and knew enough about conditions in other parts of the country to start a revolution, and cobblers, as providers of "personal services," were their ...


7

Perhaps this is facile to think an originally English, Protestant movement would have any relation to or impact on the Spanish Catholic Christians, but I wonder why not? The colonies of North and South America were still relatively young and only loosely united amongst themselves, and both were havens for religious communities and peoples seeking a new land. ...


6

At the time that Luther and Calvin came forward, the Holy Roman Catholic Church basically controlled religion throughout Europe. The Church helped ensure this by telling people that God spoke through the Church and NOT to common man. This was made easier by the fact that most people could not read and the only bibles available were in the churches. Luther ...


5

I'm no expert, but will attempt a partial answer - first, the educational qualifications refer to:- BA - Bachelor of Arts MA - Master of Arts (traditionally awarded automatically to Oxford graduates one year after graduating) BD - Bachelor of Divinity AM - I think another description on of MA. A clerk would probably refer to a clerk in holy orders - ...


5

The 95 Theses (e) do not only address indulgence and indulgences! First of all, to avoid a possible confusion, the word indulgences, is a difficult word to understand correctly here. In terms of the Roman-Catholic religion it is not "enjoyment", "pleasure" associated with luxury and greed. In this cases indulgences are letters of absolution, that were on ...


4

John and Charles Wesley were Anglican pastors who made a somewhat similar trip to the Americas about 40 years later than your designated time. However, they may be somewhat useful models in that they later became famous enough that all kinds of media were made (and importantly disseminated up to this day) depicting them doing so. Here's an engraving of ...


4

The de.wikipedia has dedicated a whole section to the historicity of this incident. In the introduction: Die Historizität des Thesenanschlags, bei dem Luther seine 95 Thesen am 31. Oktober 1517 eigenhändig an die Tür der Schlosskirche in Wittenberg genagelt haben soll, ist umstritten. The historicity of the incident that Luther shall have nailed the ...


4

I found two schools of thought on this. School 1: There is not and never has been any official organization overseeing all Pentecostals, and there is not really one single founding church of the movement. Pentecostalism is a set of beliefs that evolved over time among a lot of independent churches, so there really is no single founder. The earliest ...


4

Under the Ancien Régime, the judiciary of France was divided into several local bodies known as parlements. Despite the similarity of their names to the modern parliamentary institution, the Ancien Régime parlement were quite different. They formed a powerful component of the French judicial system, serving as the highest courts of appeals for their region. ...


3

The Charismatic movement1 began on April 3, 1960 when an Episcopalian priest, Dennis J. Bennett, told his congregation that he had experienced the Baptism of the Holy Spirit.2 His sermon sparked a new Pentecostal revival and lead to many churches adopting some of the beliefs and practices of Pentecostal Christians. However, unlike the first major Pentecostal ...


3

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Lollard means: "From M[iddle] [Dutch] lollaerd, lit. 'mumbler, mutterer', f[rom] lollen to mutter, mumble". This was a pejorative term to refer to a CLASS of people that held certain religious beliefs, as opposed to holders of the beliefs themselves. Specifically, it referred to "uneducated" Englishmen (in the ...


3

The name was derived from lollium, a tare, but was used in Flanders early in the fourteenth century to refer to one as a "hypocrite". Others took it to mean "idlers" and connected it with to loll. In the fourteenth century the word "lollard" was used to represent a number of terms. People who were identified as anti-clerical and wishing to disendow the ...


3

The most recent (third) edition of the OED cites 1598 as the earliest English-language reference for "Anglican". The quotation is as follows: 1598 King James VI & I in D. Calderwood True Hist. Church Scotl. (1844) V. 694 I minde not..to bring in Papisticall or Anglican bishopping; but onlie to have the best and wisest of the ministrie ...


3

The OED (first edition) attests the first use to a letter dated Aug. 25, 1635, to a Dr. B. from James Howell and collected in his Familiar Letters on Important Subjects, published 1650. (Letter XLVIII) ...; yet they all concur in opposition to the Roman church, as also they of the Anglican, Scotican, Gallic, Argentine, Saxonick, Wirtenbergick, Palatine, ...


2

You are out of luck for all but the very end of the period you describe. Congregational hymn singing was strongly frowned upon in the Anglican Church until popularized by Isaac Watts (1674-1748) in the early 18th century. Watts led by including new poetry for "original songs of Christian experience" to be used in worship, according to Marini. The older ...


2

After the break between the Catholics and the Protestant reformers, moderate Catholic rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V tried to reconcile the two sides. At his instigation, Protestant theologians developed a statement of principles called the Confession of Augsburg that was acceptable to some Catholics. Even Charles V conceded in 1530 (and ...


2

As near as I can tell, at the time of the publication of Luther's 95 Theses in 1518, there was not a significant openly-protestant movement in England. The kingdom would not break with the Catholic Church for another 25 years, and even then the differences were initially only over King Henry VIII's personal desire for an annulment. The native movement of ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible