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American attitudes toward China were best expressed in the Open Door Policy. This policy was, in fact, aimed at "rolling back" some of the special privileges others were trying to "rent." American didn't want to "rent" parts of China because she didn't want other countries to "rent" (and thereby divide) China into 5-10 "special" regions. America was on its ...


6

This is the handwritten decree that it was referring to (relevant content boxed in red): Text (with corrections; courtesy of https://kknews.cc/history/epbl22y.html) 「恭親王從議政以來,妄自尊大,諸多驕敖(傲),以(依)仗爵高權重,目無君上,看朕沖齡,諸多挾致(制),往往諳始(暗使)離間,不可細問。每日召見,趾高氣揚,言語之間,許多取巧,滿是胡談亂道。嗣(似)此情形,以後何以能辦國事?若不即早宣示,朕歸政之時,何以能用人行正(政)?」宣布「恭親王著毋庸在軍機處議政,革去一切差使,不准干預公事」!


6

I'm not deeply familiar with this history and don't know Chinese, but can link you to some relevant terminology from Wikipedia. The institutional arrangements for foreign trade under the Qing dyansty prior to the Opium War are widely known as the Canton System. Apparently the primary Chinese term for this was yīkǒu tōngshāng (一口通商) meaning "single [port] ...


5

I have only very superficial knowledge of Chinese history and the following is mostly based on some quick Wikipedia reading. The Qing did not make much effort to keep in contact with the outside world. On the one hand, by the nineteenth century it was in a long slow decline and faced internal problems, culminating in a series of rebellions. On the other ...


5

Have they ever tried it before? Yes, after the foundation of the republic, Manchurian elites fostered Manchurian nationalism in the dreams of an imperial restoration. The existence of this movement was one of the factors that culminated in the creation of Manchukuo by Japan in 1932. A prominent example is Asin-Gioro Xi Qia, a distant member of the Qing ...


4

Chinese population in Straits Settlements The "wave of Chinese emigration to Malaya beginning in the early 19th century" actually really took off in the 1840s (i.e. towards the end of your specified period 1800-50). In Singapore, the Chinese population almost doubled from around 28,000 in 1850 to about 50,000 in 1860 and 103,000 by 1888. For the bigger ...


4

Before answering, I noticed you've asked a previous question regarding China and Southeast Asia (re: migrants to British Malaya during 19th century). I do not know your specific level and area of interest, so I'd like to recommend 2 books: Victor Purcell, The Chinese in Southeast Asia (Oxford, 1981), reviewed here. This book is slightly outdated (but up ...


4

This French and British fleets were government-sponsored fleets containing official Navy ships. Their expeditions to China were conducted as part of official government policy with expansionist motives. The large majority of American ships involved in the China trade were private merchantmen, not Navy warships. The Americans had a few isolated warships in ...


4

I don't believe that these are merely popular stories. If you at least partially trust the content in the Draft History of Qing: The following translations given are my own; caution: may be heavily paraphrased. 《清史稿》卷445 吳兆泰,字星階,籍麻城。與仁守友善,互相厲以道義。光緒二年進士,閱十年,以編修考授御史。時國防廢弛,海軍尤不振,朝廷乃移其費修頤和園。兆泰上疏力爭,略謂:「畿輔奇災,嗷鴻遍野,僵僕載塗,此正朝廷減膳徹樂之時,非土木興作之日。乞罷園工,以慰民望,以光繼列祖列宗儉德。」太后怒,...


2

Even under the early Qing when silver was relatively abundant, taxes weren't necessarily paid by households with physical silver, only assessed / denominated in terms of silver. As one article (which cites a book by Man-hong Lin) states: Qing fiscal revenue... was levied in silver tael but collected from small holders who typically paid in copper cash. ...


2

There were (at least) two reasons. The first was that there was no "provocation" from China in 1898. The British took Hong Kong Island in 1842 after the Opium War, and Kowloon in 1860 after the Arrow War, which is sometimes referred to as the Second Opium War. There was no war (with China) in connection with the acquisition of the New Territories. Given ...


1

I believe that many 19th Chinese emigrants to Malaya and other parts of Southeast Asia sailed in large junks, especially before steamships became common. The Tek Sing was a large junk. The vessel was 50 meters in length, 10 meters wide and weighed about a thousand tons. Its tallest mast was estimated to be 90 feet in height. It sank on February 6, ...


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