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23

After Mongols lost control of China (end of Yuan dynasty), there were many struggles between Mongols and Chinese as well as different Mongol tribes. These struggles weakened the integration among Mongols. After a successful but short-lived unification attempt by Dayan Khan, a more organized disintegration took place giving birth to Khalkha Mongols (formerly ...


10

Could you please provide example of where Qing China is called "feudal"? Most likely, it was a common (not historian) usage, or an abuse of the term. Quoting Wikipedia: Outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is normally used only by analogy (called semi-feudal), most often in discussions of Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes medieval ...


5

While it is not that similar to a classic medieval feudalism of Europe, it still is bearing a striking similarity to European absolutism. Absolutism is characterized by rise of state bureaucracy, rise of professional armies, appointed officials ruling the territories rather than hereditary nobles, extensive codified laws. The timeline of Qing Dynasty also ...


5

This is the handwritten decree that it was referring to (relevant content boxed in red): Text (with corrections; courtesy of https://kknews.cc/history/epbl22y.html) 「恭親王從議政以來,妄自尊大,諸多驕敖(傲),以(依)仗爵高權重,目無君上,看朕沖齡,諸多挾致(制),往往諳始(暗使)離間,不可細問。每日召見,趾高氣揚,言語之間,許多取巧,滿是胡談亂道。嗣(似)此情形,以後何以能辦國事?若不即早宣示,朕歸政之時,何以能用人行正(政)?」宣布「恭親王著毋庸在軍機處議政,革去一切差使,不准干預公事」!


4

I have only very superficial knowledge of Chinese history and the following is mostly based on some quick Wikipedia reading. The Qing did not make much effort to keep in contact with the outside world. On the one hand, by the nineteenth century it was in a long slow decline and faced internal problems, culminating in a series of rebellions. On the other ...


4

Have they ever tried it before? Yes, after the foundation of the republic, Manchurian elites fostered Manchurian nationalism in the dreams of an imperial restoration. The existence of this movement was one of the factors that culminated in the creation of Manchukuo by Japan in 1932. A prominent example is Asin-Gioro Xi Qia, a distant member of the Qing ...


4

Before answering, I noticed you've asked a previous question regarding China and Southeast Asia (re: migrants to British Malaya during 19th century). I do not know your specific level and area of interest, so I'd like to recommend 2 books: Victor Purcell, The Chinese in Southeast Asia (Oxford, 1981), reviewed here. This book is slightly outdated (but up ...


3

Chinese population in Straits Settlements The "wave of Chinese emigration to Malaya beginning in the early 19th century" actually really took off in the 1840s (i.e. towards the end of your specified period 1800-50). In Singapore, the Chinese population almost doubled from around 28,000 in 1850 to about 50,000 in 1860 and 103,000 by 1888. For the bigger ...


3

I don't believe that these are merely popular stories. If you at least partially trust the content in the Draft History of Qing: The following translations given are my own; caution: may be heavily paraphrased. 《清史稿》卷445 吳兆泰,字星階,籍麻城。與仁守友善,互相厲以道義。光緒二年進士,閱十年,以編修考授御史。時國防廢弛,海軍尤不振,朝廷乃移其費修頤和園。兆泰上疏力爭,略謂:「畿輔奇災,嗷鴻遍野,僵僕載塗,此正朝廷減膳徹樂之時,非土木興作之日。乞罷園工,...


2

Even under the early Qing when silver was relatively abundant, taxes weren't necessarily paid by households with physical silver, only assessed / denominated in terms of silver. As one article (which cites a book by Man-hong Lin) states: Qing fiscal revenue... was levied in silver tael but collected from small holders who typically paid in copper cash. ...


1

I believe that many 19th Chinese emigrants to Malaya and other parts of Southeast Asia sailed in large junks, especially before steamships became common. The Tek Sing was a large junk. The vessel was 50 meters in length, 10 meters wide and weighed about a thousand tons. Its tallest mast was estimated to be 90 feet in height. It sank on February 6, ...


1

From the Tan dynasty era, Chinese empires ( if China is split into 2 countries, the "subordinate" countries paid later explained Tributary System to the closest superior country. ) used Tributary system. Qing was most powerful country at that time in China. Qin also "put under symbolic control" many countries around them through the aforementioned ...


1

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 was the equivalent of the French Revolution (of 1789). Both were directed against "archaic" monarchial structures considered "feudalistic." That was not technically true in either case. But both monarchies contained "traces" of feudal practice that were the object of scorn. To take just one example, one of the targets of the ...


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