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51

It seems that the term was used on a number of pieces of legislation as late as the 1970's. In 2016, President Obama signed legislation into law which struck outdated racial terms such as “Oriental” and “Negro” from federal laws. As this article observes: Two sections in the U.S. Code written in the 1970s governing public health and civil rights attempted ...


30

The US Army stopped using the term "Negro" in November of 2014. See U.S. Army apologizes, will drop term 'Negro' from policy document However, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) still has a document, originally published 12 April 2015, Racial and Ethnic Categories and Definitions for NIH Diversity Programs and for Other Reporting Purposes, ...


26

Actually, a good modern analogy might be to look at how white mainstream America views the Black Lives Matter movement currently1: open hostility from social conservatives, and a lot of patronizing disagreement on methods from Liberals and Moderates. Where the analogy (probably?) breaks down is that there were a great many conservatives who flat out wanted ...


19

The origins of the Ancient Egyptians remains very much an open question. The latest DNA study that I'm aware of suggests that Ancient Egyptian populations may have more common ancestry with populations in the Near East and Europe than with those in Sub-Saharan Africa. That said, the available evidence is limited and future research may change our ...


19

Mostly, but not entirely. Several states including Virginia explicitly recognized slaves that were purely descended from Indians. It is important to realize that the law often had no bearing on whether a person could be enslaved and there was a huge mismatch between the laws and actual practice. For example, most southern states had laws very early making ...


10

There's no scientific definition of "race", so that part of the question is unanswerable. Linguists do try to classify languages though, since that can be done (mostly) objectively, based on similarity of grammar and words. One popular theory has been Turkic languages and Mongolic languages are part of a larger family of languages, named Altaic. Today ...


9

I'm afraid that this is yet another example of Wikipedia editors misreading source material. I went to the source of this specific assertion: Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did "White People" Become "White"? by James H. Dee, and here's the passage where that "17th century" date must have come from: So, to return to my title question at last: when did "...


8

Traditionally most municipalities in the USA select their jury pool based on their state's voter rolls. That is in fact how Alabama does it today. This is probably chiefly for convenience sake. A state's voter registrations is about the only convenient database of "of age" residents and where they live that the state (and everyone in it) has access to. ...


8

Malcolm X's understanding of race was dramatically changed by his completion of the Hajj, the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. Here's a copy of the letter he wrote. He wrote that, "I have never before witnessed such sincere hospitality and the practice of true brotherhood as I have seen it here in Arabia. In fact all I have seen and experienced on this ...


8

TL;DR: In the 1950s it was still a stain and mark of derision not to be spoken of. In the 1960s attitudes changes. By the 1970s it had become a badge of pride which it still is for some today. Long Answer: I'll quote extensively from two interesting articles on the topic and so just abbreviate which one the quote is from. One article itself quotes ...


8

In addition to the other answer there are a few points I think are important. For one many African American service men, most who had never left the farm or city, were exposed to a vastly different society and racial attitudes in Europe. They came home more idealized and realizing that there was much much more to be offered them in life. Also in this ...


7

First, Turkish people are not in general considered of Mongoloid race, neither are Turkic-speaking Azeris. These two peoples are usually classified to belong to Europoid race with maybe only admixture of Mongoloids. Second, there is a lot of Turkic-speaking peoples that are indeed classified Mongoloid: Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Turkmen. The reason is that ...


6

Neither. Reasons given for advocating the abolition of slavery usually were: 1) Slavery was a form of theft and totally wrong, unethical, evil and against the will of God. 2) slavery was bad for all white people except for the few actual slave owners. It enabled the slave owners to dominate, oppress, and impoverish the white southerners without their ...


6

That would be the election of 1876. Prior to then, the US army was physically present in the South to enforce the civil rights laws and the 14th Amendment. So the only avenue open to those wanting to maintain the (now illegal) white supremacy was terrorism. In 1876 there was a really close election, but its pretty clear that the Republican narrowly lost it....


5

members of various Indian tribes enslaved various members of other tribes and whites. This went on even after various Indian tribes more or less acknowledged the over lordship of the Federal government. Indian warriors who wanted to enslave someone never stopped to ask if anybody in the group knew whether that was legal according the laws of the "...


5

Maybe it's a reference to the Harlem Renaissance; The Harlem Renaissance is generally considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s.[7] Many of its ideas lived on much longer. The zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, took place between 1924 (when Opportunity: A ...


4

I suspect that you are overthinking it. Given that USSR exploited every sympathiser for its nefarious purposes (cf. Atomic spies, communists in the state department &c), and given that Hoover, as the FBI Director, was acutely aware of that (much more than the general public!), it is hardly surprising that he viewed everyone leaning to the Left as ...


3

An important point for the answer to this question - the entity governing the Russian America was the Russian American Company (RAC), not the actual government structures of Russian Empire. The act legalising distinction of creoles from Russians was passed in 1821, and the aim of that act was to increase the population of lands controlled by RAC - Russian ...


3

It was 1890, not 1892, when Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act. The political events that led to these Jim Crow laws were white supremacy that the Civil War and Reconstruction failed to eliminate (they didn't make a dent), the end of Reconstruction, and numerous decisions by the Waite Supreme Court. The end of Reconstruction resulted in Federal troops ...


3

So my question is, was the Abolition of Slavery in the United States perceived and advertised as an effort to improve race relations or an improvement to labour laws? Others have given sociopolitical answers, let me give a brief economic one. The ultimate reason for slavery's actual abolition was, at least according to the economic history, an economic ...


3

Well, I can't really put it better than the current wording on the Missouri Compromise Wikipedia page: Although already superseded by the Kansas–Nebraska Act, the Supreme Court indicated that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling. Now to get a bit more technical, K-N wasn't a 100% straight repeal. The ...


3

There may not have been a movement in Britain, but there were certainly individual left-wing anti-colonial intellectuals from the British colonies who wrote works in this vein. C. L. R. James from Trinidad was one, recognized even today for Black Jacobins, a history of the Haitian revolution published in 1938. This event (contemporary to the French ...


3

According to your linked Wikipedia article, that movement essentially started out as a Francophone version of the Harlem Renaissance. One important point here is that the Afro-British would not have nearly as much incentive to start their own movement, as the existing one already used their native language. In fact, a sizable amount of participants in the ...


3

I am writing this because I believe the Wikipedia article on Turko-Mongol tradition does not really help readers understand the concept, which gave rise to this question (my assumption). Also, (perhaps) this question stems from a confusion between genetics (biology) and genealogical relationship (linguistics). If that is the case, this article on language ...


3

Your very question has no answer since it is factually wrong — most of population of modern Turkey belongs to Europoid race (more specifically — to Mediterranean, I guess). However the answer to any question in a form of “Why X belong to Y race, but speak Z language” is because race is biology and language is culture. I hope you are not very surprised by ...


3

Yes, in Texas, anti-miscegenation laws still applied to Latinos (Mexican Americans) as they were usually defined as White. It was much more obvious depending on the dominance of Spanish or Native lineage. This was documented in "Flores vs. State" (1910). The law stated that a "White" person, F. Flores, in this case being Mexican, was arrested with his wife,...


2

Chapter 6 of the book "Transnational Soldiers. Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era" (the chapter can be found here, although paywalled) deals with recruitment policies of the French Foreign Legion in 1831-1962. According to it, during that period, while official policy was that any foreign national can join, and due to "anonymat" even French ...


2

Whitefield, Bangalore, was older but smaller than McCluskieganj. Legend has it Winstorn Churchill courted the daughter of a hotel keeper there. Vide https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitefield,_Bangalore


2

Hardly! I can't put my hand on it now, but I wrote an undergraduate paper on the genesis of US slavery, where I referenced the first documented sale of "Negros" in the American colonies in, I think, 1690. It was fairly obvious from this that it was their difference (perceived as "barbarian", "childlike" and of course non-Christian etc) that made their ...


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