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101

The hexagram is not an exclusively Jewish symbol. For that matter, the Star of David as a symbol of Judaism (as opposed to a symbol used by Jews) is far newer than people realize, dating only to 1897 and the First Zionist Congress. Given that, seeing a six-pointed star on top of a Christmas tree in 1924 is no surprise. Also, Jesus was of the house of ...


82

Many churches in Europe (not just Germany) were built centuries ago, when the church was by far the most important and prestigious building in any city. Building them took decades, sometimes even centuries. For quite some time, no other building project in any city could possibly contend with its church. And even if you could, why would you? One, you would ...


42

The biggest difference that I'm aware of is that the Classical Greek religion was much more the religion of myths that we all know, while the Classical Roman religion had fewer personifications and its gods were much more like numinous forces than like people. The Greek religion that we know was encapsulated by Homer who served in some respects like an Old ...


18

The maximum building hights are determined by each city (or as in Berlin possible each City District). In Berlin the first Bebauungsplan (Building Plan) of 1862 regulated standard street widths of 22 meters and a few years later a general Traufhöhe (hight of roof base) of 5 floors between 21 and 22 meters and a court yard (Hof) of 3.50 meters were ...


16

As DevSolar noted in his answer, churches generally are tall, their spires even higher, but to answer Q Why in most German places is the church the tallest building? it might suffice to say just: No. Church spires are now usually not the tallest structures in most German places. That is an assumption quite far from visible experience on location or from ...


14

First of all, religious ideas travel much more freely than languages. Christianity spread without Aramaic, Buddhism did not carry much Pali with it, etc. I would even argue that Islam spread in a much deeper way than Arabic, despite the central place of that language in that particular religion. The reasons for this are almost self-evident. It's a lot easier ...


14

This is a bad answer - I don't have sources available. It is my understanding that we lack a great deal of the sources needed for an emic understanding of Roman and Greek religious practice, and I think that's fundamentally what you're seeking. Note that the differences between religions may not be obvious to the outsider. I've encountered Protestants who ...


11

Depends on the era and circumstances USSR was officially atheist, and all religion institutions were tightly monitored and controlled. However, every religion was not in same position, and level of persecution (or lack of) varied throughout the years. In early years of USSR, many of the communist leaders were themselves Jewish. Antisemitism was strictly ...


10

By "religious books" I assume you mean basically the Hebrew Scriptures and possibly commentaries on them? While these quite often mention Egypt, it is hard to find much the other way round. The 'Amarna letters' (a collection of diplomatic correspondence received by the Egyptian court in the fourteenth century BC, mainly in the reign of Akhenaten) contain ...


8

First: A warning. What you're going to get on this website is going to be the fruits of the Documentary Hypothesis and similar historical approaches. This often clashes with some folks' "fixed beliefs". I'm a Christian myself, and have no issue reconciling my faith with secular scholarship, but some faith traditions have big problems with it. The first ...


8

All religious institutions in the USSR were treated as honeypots, and that, of course, was true about Jewish institutions doubly both because of traditional antisemitism and the fact that Judaism associates all Jews around the world was incompatible with the soviet "шпиономания" (obsession with espionage threat). E.g., Teaching Hebrew was a felony "...


8

I suspect that we have a conflict of assumptions and language. The Lord of the World is a work of speculative fiction. None of it is historical. @KillingTime pointed out the key to understanding the entire question; the novel was published in 1907, so it isn't based on historical events at all. It is speculative fiction about then (then) future. in ...


7

Very little is known about this Roman soldier who became the fifth Prefect of Judaea between 26 and 36 A.D., serving under Emperor Tiberius. Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Tacitus mention him in their writings. An inscription known as the Pilate Stone, discovered in June 1961, confirms his historicity and establishes his title as prefect. It was ...


7

Building up is expensive. Except in high-density urban areas with very high land values, erecting tall buildings is not economical. In most places around the world, it will be cheaper to build two 20-story buildings than one 40-story building. The vast majority of German towns and villages do not have the economic pressure needed to make building up ...


6

This order is quite old and previously called Hospitaller. The earlier designs were much simpler crosses and not really "arrow-like". The design is quite varied over the medieval period and ranged from a plain Latin cross to the 'modern' design. Obsidionis Rhodie Urbis Descriptio, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms. Lat. 6067, f37v, Paris, France. While there ...


5

All the information you need is in your question; you just need to look at things from the perspective of a paranoid, totalitarian regime like the Chinese Communist Party. Falun Gong is a physical fitness movement which practices rhythmic motion and meditation. Initially Falun Gong was seen as a benign movement. However over a decade, it rapidly grew; ...


5

This is a long answer, so here is a list of connections that the public could have made, in no particular order: It was the work of the Gods and Goddesses It was the manifestation of the spirit within the object It was a form of magnetism It was a miniaturised form of lightning It was proof of hidden powers and magic of various kinds It was some ...


5

Yes, there were concerns over, what appeared to the colonials as the arbitrary establishment of the Catholic faith as a state religion in the Quebec Act, and it was included by many of the founding fathers as an argument (or a scare tactic) when discussing the intolerable acts. Some of the founders had expressed anti-catholic sentiment even before the ...


5

You would do well to remember that there were very few similarities between Roman and Greek religion until the Romans began borrowing from the Greeks. For an idea of how utterly different Roman religion originally was from Greek religion, see for example Dumezil's Archaic Roman Religion.


4

The name "Hannibal" (the Carthaginian general) means "grace of Baal". Hannah (the Hebrew name, Phoenician is also a Semitic language) means 'grace' in the sense of 'gift from God'. As the Carthaginians descended from Phoenicians, one may consider their religion at least as direct development of Phoenician Baal worship, even if specific details or names may ...


4

There was a Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 that resulted from the collapse of the Cromwell regime through the death of Oliver Cromwell, and the inability of his son to grasp the reins of power. The restoration of the Anglican church as initially seen as a "compromise" between the pro-Cromwell Presbyterians, the "centrist" Anglicans, and the ...


4

Were there a pharaoh who believed in any of the Abrahamic religions? That would be proto Judaism, as Judaism as we come to know it later on wasn't invented yet. Other Abrahamic religions were far (= many thousands of years) in the future. At that time Judaism wasn't yet monotheistic. Even that comes later. There are many stories in religious books about ...


4

Nothing of that sort. While all these religious developments describe a very slow process both are not that compatible with one another. In Egypt we have a short episode of monotheism invented by Amenophis IV (Akhnaten) around 1400 BCE that ended quite definitely after his death and for Hebrews/Israelites we have long development towards monotheism from ...


3

There was a social custom that non-Muslims would avoid wearing green, and a legal precedent which was rarely enforced: Green was the colour of Islam, which adorned the turbans of the descendants of the prophet Mohammad (eşraf), who for this reason are often referred to in the English sources as “Greenheads”. Non-Muslims were not allowed to wear green, ...


3

To answer this one, go back a little to January 1649. This is a speech by James II's father, Charles I, at his trial. I would know by what power I am called hither... I would know by what authority, I mean lawful; there are many unlawful authorities in the world; thieves and robbers by the high - ways ... Remember, I am your King, your lawful ...


3

Abraham and his almost sacrifice of his son Isaac might be a good example. Even though we do not know whether is a real event or just a metaphor. Spartans at Thermopylae battle are a good example as well. They died because they had to fulfill a tradition (principle) where their society was built, which was to die instead of return defeated.


3

What about Scientology — a new religion founded in the 20th century. The founding of the major world religions may look inevitable from present day, but contemporaries of Christ or Mohammad would not have been certain of their permanence and influence through the world. Christianity was a fringe religion for 300 years before Rome adopted it as its state ...


3

It is a common misconception in the West to confuse Jews and Judaism, and as a consequence, antisemitism with attitude to Judaism. In Europe, especially in Eastern Europe, "Jew" does not mean religion, but means "ethnic origin" (whatever this means). Most people designated as Jews in Soviet Union were not religious. The question is about religion (Judaism) ...


3

Baal means "master", "owner", "power" in Semitic languages and was a generic name for an idol. As long as there is idolatry among Semitic peoples, they would refer to idols as Baal X where X specifies the idol (a location or a heavenly body or ...)


3

So called Bosniak nation is recent invention, from 1990's First you must understand genesis of Muslims in Bosnia. They are essentially mixture of Slavic population that existed before Ottoman invasion, and various other Islamic ethnic groups that came with invaders ( Turks, Albanians, Arabs, Roma (Gypsies) etc ...) . Before aforementioned invasion, ...


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