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49

Another simple but important reason besides economic changes starting at this time is the spread of printing technique. A scientific community really only works when scholars can cite each other and share their ideas in a cheap and fast way, thats why internet boosted scientific progress in our time. If you study the link, the Gutenberg printing technique ...


30

"Islam influence"? "Italian Renaissance was caused by Islamic influence?" Of course these statements are incorrect. There was some influence of SCIENCE which was cultivated by scholars living in Islamic countries. Not the influence of Islam itself. More precisely, this influence was the following: During the Dark Age in Europe, most of the writing of ...


30

Although the two formations look similar, the pike square was developed in a very different tactical environment than the phalanx. The phalanx and the maniple were developed in an environment where the primary weapons were swords, spears, and occasionally slings. Cavalry was rare, and was typically light cavalry used as skirmishers or to protect an army's ...


28

I'm afraid any answer to this question must begin by considering what is understood to be the 'Renaissance' and the 'Scientific Revolution'. And that consideration, in turn, inevitably reveals a number of historiographical difficulties. The first of these is that neither of these were 'events', at least, not in the sense of a war or an assassination. They ...


27

The first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world was the Nao Victoria. It was originally part of Magellan's fleet. All of the other ships (the Trinidad, the San Antonio, Concepción and the Santiago), Ferdinand Magellan himself, and most of the sailors of the Victoria had already either been killed, or turned back before this. When the Victoria finally ...


26

There are many reasons, and I'm going to present the materialistic one championed by the Marxists (collective thud as the audience of History.SE falls off their chairs and faints). One of the requirements for having scientific progress is economic - you need enough surplus to enable the resources devoted to scholarship. This was enabled at the beginning of ...


25

The short answer is yes. The detail will depend on where in the world you are based. In the UK, for example, we have the Association of Genealogists and Researchers in Archives. Their website includes a search form to help you find a researcher who can help you with this kind of research. However, having said that, I suggest having a look at the ...


21

I'm going to add another answer specifically to address a separate part of your question: why didn't the same thing happen in Islamic world? The answer is plausibly Al-Ghazali. Quoting from Wikipedia: Others have cited his movement from science to faith as a detriment to Islamic scientific progress (source: Sawwaf, A. (1962) al-Ghazali: Etude sur la ...


21

The two claims are not incompatible. There was certainly a very large Islamic influence on the Italian Renaissance. Many classical texts are largely known to us through transmission via the Islamic world. For example, see Wikipedia's article on the Transmission of the Greek Classics. Interpretations of the classical texts, like those of Aristotle, were ...


14

Wikipedia's page on Japanese swordsmithing provides some information on the time frames involved in the manufacture of good quality blades: The forging of a Japanese blade typically took many days or weeks, and was considered a sacred art, traditionally accompanied by a large panoply of Shinto religious rituals. As with many complex endeavors, rather than ...


14

I understand that there are four surviving accounts of de Soto's expedition. Three of those accounts were written by survivors: Rodrigo Rangel or Ranjel, who was de Soto’s personal secretary; Luys Hernández de Biedma, the Spanish King’s representative; and an individual known as the “Gentleman from Elvas”, who is believed to be a Portuguese mercenary ...


13

I have friends that forge knives and swords. Assuming you already have your steel stock, a couple days will be sufficient. Maybe less than one day if you work hard at it. This will vary by smith and by sword type. An apprentice might take a week or more.


12

The Holy Roman Empire, as an "empire", did not have a territory of its own. It must be understood in the context of feudalism: a number of princes/kings/bishops/whatever were tied, through sworn allegiance, to the elected Emperor. In a way, we can say that the Empire extended exactly as far as these constituent elements extended. On the other hand, the ...


12

The trivial answer is he was executed for being a Protestant. The deeper answer is we aren't quite sure, but he had gained some powerful enemies. There was a lengthy list of charges read at his trial. While I don't have access to the full list, the first 7 appear to be unrelated to the actual act of translating The Bible into English, but rather are simply ...


11

Partly it's because you are reading the history books of those countries and a certain amount is spin. Islamic countries were the principle source of science between the Romans/Greeks and the 16C - inconvenient if you are a christian country and especially if you are a university that is essentially a religious institution. So you claim that these Arabs ...


11

According to Niall Ferguson in The Ascent of Money, they aren't balls, but coins. (I listened to the audiobook so I can't provide a page citation.) I'm somewhat suspicious because the blazon for the arms is "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or" ...


11

Many famous people in history died of allegedly natural causes and were suspected of being poisoned. Thus there are many people in history who might have been assassinated by poison if poisoning is counted as an assassination method. In these cases there were often persons suspected of ordering the poisoning but the actual poisoners were usually unknown. ...


10

Honestly I do not have the complete historic reference for this, but the Germans were one of the first groups of people to actually print manuals for fencing. Johannes Liechtenauer was a famous weapon master of the 14th century and most of the people that wrote the initial manuals claim to have trained with him. With the manuals of combat being written out ...


10

Cosimo di Medici inherited a thriving "banking" business from his father Giovanni, who was the "Fred Trump" of the family, with Cosimo being like the current President of the United States. Most people "get into" something by starting small; a smart or lucky few get "big" and become very successful. Giovanni had inherited a small time moneylending business ...


10

Simply, the Greenland settlement those discoveries were centered on died out before the Printing Press. The last anyone heard from it for sure was 1410, and Gutenberg started working on his press in 1436. Back then information had to be hand-copied by professional scribes, which was a relatively time-consuming and expensive process. Because of this, only ...


9

It is a long and complicated story, but a very brief outline is the following. Copernicus book was published in 1543. For about 70 years after that the Church did not express any "official opinion" on it. The book was discussed by several writers, some supported and others criticized the theory, as it usually happens with scientific theories. The church did ...


9

In medieval Europe it took a standard blacksmith about a week to make a decent average steel longsword. If they where making something for their lord or king they would often spend as much as 6 months ensuring they had the ornate design perfect, but that's about it. Usually a sword would take about 1-2 months to finish, not because they where spending that ...


9

Medieval times span ten centuries and a continent. An English village in 1400 would be far from a Norwegian village in 500. That makes generalizations difficult. Here I'm thinking of the 11th or 12th century, England, France or the HRE. Many villages had a church, but that did not mean there was a full-time priest. (That would be a chapel of ease, unlike a ...


8

Two major reasons for this : The introduction of printing through Johannes Gutenberg, and the Reformation which implied that every Christian should be able to read the Bible, which made reading accessible and interesting. The Reformation spread first among craftsmen and merchants who could read. The progressive introduction of paper in the 14th, 15th and ...


8

You have confused the very real changes that occurred to the borders over the 170 years from roughly 1520 to 1700 with the concept that the borders were vague throughout that time. That span of years encompasses both the Thirty Years War in Germany, the Eighty years War of Dutch Independence, the War of the League of Augsburg, and several smaller conflicts. ...


8

It would be interesting to make a list of principal ancient texts and how each of them reached us. And make a statistics. (Perhaps someone knows such a list?) Many of the texts that I know exist in both Arabic and Greek medieval versions. Before this list is made, I want to express my doubts about Tyler Durden answer. He only gives examples of literary work ...


8

They likely spoke a combination of German and French. It's not entirely clear what they were speaking while teaching their respective mother tongues to each other - most likely Latin, maybe Flemish, maybe some combination of Flemish and German (the two are related enough that you can pick up what was meant every now and then). Maximilian spoke 6 or 7 ...


8

This sounds like a garbled version of the fleur-de-lis brand used in France. - Until 1832 in France, various offenses carried the additional infamy of being branded with a fleur de lis This would be used on criminals who were not condemned to death, (which makes sense if you think about it) but apparently would be carried out by the executioner. As ...


7

The Renaissance happened in the Byzantine empire as well, but it was interrupted by the fall of Constantinople. Anyway, Italy remained the most developed and scientifically advanced country throughout the Middle Ages. That is, it was the most scientifically advanced from the times of the Roman empire. It is completely incorrect to claim that the Muslim ...


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