26

Louis Philippe II the Duke of Orléans, who avidly supported the French Revolution - arguably, the quintessential revolution of the modern era. As First Prince of the Blood, he was one of the most senior members of the ruling Bourbon dynasty. In fact his son would assume the French throne in 1830. I think he qualifies both as a royal and member of the high ...


22

Because this question has been edited many times I have to clarify that I am answering the version that asks: What caused the Iranian 1979 revolution to become Islamic? Short Answer (more suited for causal conversations in bars): It was easier to portray the Shah as anti Islamic ruler in league with the Western powers bent on destroying Islam in an Islamic ...


17

The person that comes to mind is Getulio Vargas of Brazil. He first took power in 1930, in a military-backed coup, after being defeated in a Presidential race, ousting the outgoing President and President-elect. He ruled as a virtual dictator until 1945, at which time he was forced to step down from the Presidency, and allow democratic elections, because his ...


17

Speaking very generally, merchant groups were relatively marginalized in all pre-modern societies. They formed networks across city-states in different regions, but were not allowed to take strong political footholds in more centralized states. Political rulers saw economic power as a threat, a (sometimes necessary) evil and were generally successful in ...


11

What we now know as the Gunpowder Plot began as a conspiracy between three men: Robert Catesby, John Wright and Thomas Winter. Only one of the three, Thomas Winter, survived to tell their account of the plot. That account was extracted under torture, so we should approach it with come caution, but it is the best information that we have. His confession is ...


11

Nicaragua 1979 The overthrow of the Samoza regime and the National Guard (as the Nicaraguan military was then known) by the Sandinista National Liberation Front in 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution seems to qualify. With an estimated death toll of at least 30,000 and numerous clashes between students, guerrillas and the National Guard, it certainly wasn'...


10

Largely from Hinduism and Jainism. Adding onto this was his exposure to Buddhist and Theosophical thought while he was a student in London. His eventual philosophy of Satyagraha came to fruition from his experiences in South Africa.


10

The answer is simple. In the parts of Imperial Russia that became the USSR, the Communist Party had managed to achieve sufficient control, and was determined to form a union. The parts that became independent had strong nationalist movements which won their conflicts with the local communist movements. In Austria-Hungary, the nationalist movements won ...


10

Iran and Saudi Arabia are both majority Muslim nations in western Asia, with a lot of their external revenue coming from oil extraction. But that's about where the resemblance ends. Iran is largely Shia' in religion, and the vast majority of its population speak Indo-European (Mostly Indo-Iranian) languages. Only about 3% of its population is Arab. Their ...


10

Assuming that with "Weimar" the question asked exclusively about pre-dictatorship Germany then for the timespan from 1919–1934 we have to observe: (October 1930) It's gonna be a clean winter. Nominations just against us. But the scoundrels will be wrong if they think they'll break us by terror and persecution. Interview with a radio man. I gave him a ...


9

Nobody knew that Castro was communist until after he came to power. I was in Cuba in 1958 (or'57 - I am not sure) and everyone was rooting for Castro. He was largely financed by the Cuban middle class; businesses and shop owners. Nobody had a clue at that time.


9

We have the following statements in Burke's writings: They [leaders of previous revolutions] were not like Jew brokers contending with each other who could best remedy with fraudulent circulation and depreciated paper the wretchedness and ruin brought on by their degenerate councils. (Reflections on the Revolution in France) We have in London very ...


9

Initially, Japanese observers thought the Taiping Rebellion was a nationalist revolt by Ming China loyalists. This perception was encouraged by for instance the rebel slogan "Destroy Manchuria, Revive Han China (滅満興漢)". Thus, Japan believed the rebellion to be an attempt by the subjugated Han Chinese natives to free themselves form their Manchurian overlords....


8

If I’m reading this question correctly, there are 4 criteria for an answer to be a valid example: There was a revolution. It was recent. There was a major or large-scale redistribution of wealth from rich to poor. There was violence. Presumably, this violence should relate to the redistribution of wealth rather than the actual overthrow of the previous ...


8

From Hinduism into which he was born. He was influenced by Jainism later. Jainism borrowed the concept of "ahimsa" or non-violence from Hinduism. Jains adopted and followed it with much greater rigor.


8

There are too many examples of this kind. Secession of the USA from Great Britain American civil war Civil war in Russia in 1918-1922, particularly, secessions of Ukraine, Georgia and other territories. Dessolution of the USSR, particularly secessions of the Baltic republics, as well as Russian SFSR itself. Secession of Chechen republic from Russia. ...


8

The ship was the SS Ypiranga, which was indeed a German ship (although it was at that point a cargo-steamer, not yet a passenger liner). Díaz departed from the port of Veracruz on May 31st, 1911 bound for the French port of Le Havre with a stop Havana. The event was reported in the June 1st edition of the New York Times: VERA CRUZ, May 31. -- Ex-President ...


8

Some of the UK colonies became independent on very friendly terms, and still maintain close ties to the UK. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand come to mind. However... their indigenous populations were pushed aside by the arriving colonists, so those people might feel otherwise about the experience. Hong Kong didn't move from colony to self rule, it moved ...


8

Your question appears to be based upon a false assumption: As far back as 1590, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum showed that the northern part of the New World was known as "America Mexicana" (Mexican America), as México City was the seat for the New Spain viceroyalty. New Spain is mistaken as the old name for México, rather than the name of a large of ...


8

The central problem in the theory presented in the question is this: According to their reasoning, the leaders of the military control the military, and thus have enough firepower to defeat any popular uprising. Well, the 'leaders' do not always 'control' the military on all its levels. It's an idealisation. The average grunt sometimes thinks for himself....


7

The French Revolution occurred from 1789 to 1799. The period covered by Les Miserable which is the June Rebellion of 1832. Articles on the June Rebellion indicate the restored king was Louis Phillipe.


7

Its an interesting thesis. The problem is that "important" out he left himself essentially makes it a No true Scottsman argument. In other words, it isn't really a falsifiable statement. Any counter-argument I could possibly make can be dismissed as "not really an important war" (or failing that, you could try to argue against the liberality/fanacisim of the ...


7

Counterexamples: Spanish Civil War: one can argue that republicans were more liberal Chinese Civil War: one can argue that kuomitang was more liberal Russian Civil War: some anti-bolshevik factions were fighting under the slogan of support of the Russian Constituent Assembly - more liberal WW2: one can easily argue that USSR was less liberal than the 3rd ...


7

Has its accuracy changed since? North Vietnam won over South Vietnam. Taliban won over Northern Alliance prior to US getting involved in 2001 Hezbollah effectively won against everyone (forced Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, and squeezed 'liberals' out of Lebanese politics). Depending on your definition of liberal, theocrats won in Iran in 1979. ...


7

Climate Change and Natural Disasters A strong factor in the dissolution of states, which can be observed all across history, is environmental change and disasters. A few caveats: I can't think of any examples in which environmental factors have brought about the direct and extremely rapid demise of a state (although local polities have certainly been ...


7

This question makes no sense until a "religion" is unambiguously defined. And this is difficult. Some definitions are so broad that according to these definitions, there is no irreligious society at all. For example a remarkable book by Vercor, Humans or animals? (one of the places where I have seen a general definition of religion) includes "burial of the ...


7

If you accept a Western Roman Emperor as a dictator, then Vetranio (March to December 350 AD) may qualify. This somewaht obscure emperor was deposed peacefully by Contantius II: Constantius first met with Vetranio at Serdica.... On 25 December 350 both men mounted a platform before the assembled troops; Constantius managed, by means of a strong speech,...


6

The effects of the Cuban revolution has been wholly negative. Not only was it immediately highly negative for the economy, as any civil war is, the planned economy instigated by the communist government in Cuba has, as all planned economy, stifled the Cuban economy and doomed the country to poverty. During the early 20th century Cuba was a prosperous country....


6

I'm Cuban (1984- leave cuba in 2009), and I'll try to be the most unbiased possible. In Cuba exist two currencies the CUP AND CUC Local citizens are paid in CUP. 24 CUP = 1 CUC 1 CUC = 1.10 USD The avg salary is 500 CUP ~ 20 USD by month The health system and all kind of Education include elemental, Bachelor, Master, etc are free. 1/2 Kg (1 lb.) of chicken ...


6

Going out on a limb here, and feel free to disagree, but what about the growth of the early Church? The growth of the Church in early centuries was a form of independence movement, inasmuch as early Christians simply wanted to practice their faith without fear of persecution. Also, the growth of the church (emphasis on the small "c"), meaning the local ...


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