33

They most probably got that knowledge from cultural exchange with the greek city-states from southern France, like Massilia (Marseille), which was founded around 600 BCE and had plenty of relations with the sorrounding celtic tribes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Marseille


12

Roman senators sat on benches while the consuls had the privilege of sitting on curule chairs (which are not shown in the fresco). In addition to the arrangement of the seating, Cesare Maccari's Cicerone denuncia Catalina contains other errors, among which are the location of this particular meeting and Cicero's (apparent) age. The seating depicted is the ...


11

Its quite possible, but don't be so credulous of Caesar's judgement and reporting. Not everything he's written has turned out to be 100% accurate. I don't know about the nuances of the original Latin, but that translation reads "they use Greek characters". That's not the same thing as using the Greek language. Right now, this post is using Latin characters. ...


7

The chairs are called curule chairs. This painting is a romantic painting. It is anything but accurate. What it shows is how Victorians thought or would like it to be. Roman senators brought their own curule chairs to the meetings of the senate. Or more accurate: their servants brought them. ** I'm not sure if they sat on benches or brought their own ...


5

First of all, there is inscriptional evidence that the Eastern Greek Alphabet was indeed used to write the Gaulish language in gallia narbonensis. The actual alphabet and some inscriptions are shown in the Wikipedia article on the Gaulish language. The reason for the adoption of this alphabet is obviously the Greek colony at Marseille. This was not the only ...


5

Why Caesar crossed the Rubicon is a question none other than Caesar himself answered: 'They wanted it so. I, Gaius Caesar, in spite of such great deeds would have been condemned, had I not sought help from my army (hoc uoluerunt. tantis rebus gestis C. Caesar condemnatus essem nisi ab exercitu auxilium petissem).' (Suet. Dl 30.4; Plut. Caes. 46.1. ) ...


5

Other answers indicate the prevalence of colonization, I add this one to suggest a reason why remote colonies would be founded (it's a long way from Britain and France to Greece). If you want to make bronze you must have tin (and copper). Europe has very few sources of tin. Therefore, throughout ancient times it was imported long distances from the ...


5

Short answer There were a number of precedents for Caesar requesting to be allowed to stand for the consulship in absentia. However, it was outlawed sometime after 71 BC and before 60 BC. Cato the Younger was instrumental in opposing Caesar's attempt to stand in absentia in 50 BC, just as he had opposed Pompey's attempt in 62 BC. Among the more notable ...


5

The following uses the translation of Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 21 Benjamin Oliver Foster Livy. Boooks XXI-XXII With An English Translation. Cambridge. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1929. [19.1] This straightforward demand and declaration of war seemed more in keeping with the dignity of ...


5

Not only were they not mutually exclusive, but the Centuriate Assembly and Tribal Assembly had precisely the same members (all adult male Roman citizens), just organized into groups differently (the 35 tribes vs the 193 centuries, to give their eventual counts), with one vote to each tribe or to each century. These included both patricians and plebeians, so ...


5

It would be very difficult to define a meaningful general average, especially without more clearly defined parameters. As @Mark-C-Wallace has explained, the sizes of individual balneum varied widely. Their popularity and availability would have depended on where (the city of Rome itself, or the wider empire) and when (Roman bath culture spanned centuries) ...


4

Depends on the size of the balneum, the size of the community, and the number of competitors. "Small bathhouses, called balneum (plural balnea), might be privately owned, while they were public in the sense that they were open to the populace for a fee. " Wikipedia "These Roman baths varied from simple to exceedingly elaborate structures, and they varied ...


3

In addition to the answer already given, the Celts were certainly aware of the Greeks by the 3rd century BCE, as they had formed a colony in Asia minor and were slowly being Hellenized. It's not beyond the realms of possibility that the Celts in Anatolia kept in contact, due to trade or personal relationships, with those still in Gaul, and in the process ...


2

It depends. Other than "Ave", "Vivat" ([long] live) comes to mind. I have also found that in a toasting-cheering context, the proclamations "dii propitii!": (May the Gods be propitious!) and "Feliciter!" (be lucky, happy) were used. The Wiki article makes quite a good job of demonstrating that "res publica" was used to refer to many different concepts: ...


2

A caveat for the motivating theory: A. Momigliano has theorized that the plebeians were more affected and propelled by Greek influences than the patricians, and that such influences account for the remarkable efficiency and strength of the plebeian institutions. I find this unconvincing for two reasons. First, the particular effect of such influences on ...


1

Question: Why was Caesar at the Rubicon? Short Answer: The perception was Caesar was at the Rubicon, with a single legion (1/10th of his available forces) to seek terms in his confrontation with his political rivals who controlled the Senate. That Caesar subsequently crossed the Rubicon, invading Rome reluctantly only after his moderate requirements for ...


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