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34

Plutarch's Lives says this about Marcus Cato: He would likewise say ... and that in his whole life he most repented of three things; one was, that he had trusted a secret to a woman; another, that he went by water when he might have gone by land; the third, that he had remained one whole day without doing any business of moment.


27

First and foremost, for an army recommendations and even regulations would be always conditional on availability; if there was not enough cheese available or if cheese had gone bad then simply cheese would not be distributed. In other words, the fact that cheese was recommended does not mean that every time the soldiers had to do long marches they would have ...


24

The Roman conquest of Britain was undertaken in 43 CE by four legions: Legio II Augusta Legio IX Hispana Legio XIV Gemina Legio XX Valeria Victrix These same legions still comprised the garrison a dozen years later during the uprising by Boudicea Legio II Augusta remains in Britain until at least the 3rd century. Legio IX Hispana is sent to ...


22

Actually, no Roman legions appear to have been based in London. There was a fort in the north-west of the Roman city, built early in the second century, which could have held a garrison of about 1000 soldiers. However, this was the guard available to the governor of the province, rather than any particular legion. In fact, five legions are known to have ...


12

...the first of these I filled with provisions—viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to my ...


12

You can't really compare the two, because the Romans lived in such a different world than we do. The Romans didn't really have the concept of a "continent", as they didn't know for a fact that land past where they'd explored ever ended at all*. For all they knew, the Earth may have been half or more land, and the seas merely big lakes. For Africa, they had ...


10

In present day, Istanbul spans over the two sides of the Bosphorus, and it can claim to be the largest transcontinental city in the word. However, in classical and medieval times the city of Constantinople and its ancestor Byzantium were only in a small part of the European side of modern Istanbul. Therefore, Constantinople was in Europe.


9

He's probably talking about structures like this one at Senam Semana in Roman Tripolitania: You can see the superficial resemblance to the Stonehenge trilithons: image source Wikimedia CC BY-SA 3.0 de So it is, perhaps, understandable that nineteenth-century travellers in north‐west Libya took them to be prehistoric megaliths and assumed they were of ...


8

Dry hard cheeses like parmesan generally do not go bad quickly. As the FDA puts it *"As a general rule, hard cheeses such as cheddar, processed cheeses (American), and both block and grated Parmesan do not require refrigeration for safety..." Such cheeses are in fact typically aged in warm environments for months or (in the case of really fancy cheese) years....


7

"Pretense" and "Fiction" are certainly the right words for it. Nobody really bought into it at the time (except the Roman Senate, at knife-point), and I wouldn't suggest we do so now. The ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire Zeno made it clear he felt Julius Nepos was the rightful ruler of the West until his death in 480. He didn't accept Odacter or his puppet ...


6

because it is normal for participants in a succession dispute to ask for foreign help, thus often getting foreign warriors involved in a civil war. Thus Byzantine civil wars in earlier times had often resulted in Turkish, Serbian, Bulgarian, Venetian, or Genoese military and naval involvement. It is also common to ask for foreign arbitration. Usually a ...


6

Did they tolerate those who only believed in some of their gods? I don't see how it is possible - how does one believe in, say, Mars but not in his father Jupiter? Mars is defined as a Jupiter's son! Given that the Greek/Roman pantheon is a sex, jealousy & violence -obsessed dysfunctional family, it makes no sense for a person to deny divinity of any ...


6

I think that what you have there is actually a 'silver' Antoninianus minted under Caracalla: You are correct that the seated figure is Victory (seated facing right on her cuirass, with a shield on her knee). The text on the obverse reads: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM and on the reverse: P M TR P XX COS IIII PP The text under the seated Victory is: ...


5

NO. The Roman army was made up of "professional" soldiers, who served 25 years (from their late teens to their early 40s, like modern ball players), before they were disbanded. No medieval armies had soldiers of this standing, although the Kommenians came closer than others. This started after the Punic Wars, when cheap grain acquired from Sicily (and ...


5

It would be very difficult to define a meaningful general average, especially without more clearly defined parameters. As @Mark-C-Wallace has explained, the sizes of individual balneum varied widely. Their popularity and availability would have depended on where (the city of Rome itself, or the wider empire) and when (Roman bath culture spanned centuries) ...


5

Neither Cassius Dio nor Herodian appear to make any mention of lovers, or children resulting from any such liaisons, though that does not mean there weren't any. It seems more likely, given his character, that Caracalla bedded any woman who came to his attention (not a problem for an emperor presumably, especially one with so few scruples) but, again, there ...


4

The idea that "Strange things come out of Africa" originated in the Greco-Roman world. Even then, Africa was considered a little "different" because of the strange animals such as elephants, camels and lions. These, and the Sahara desert, had no counterparts in Europe. But Africa was not viewed as a "dark" continent. Dark-skinned Mediterraneans were more ...


4

As Pere already explained (+1), Byzantium (and then Constantinople) was centered around the present-day neighbourhood of Sultanahmet on the European side of the Bosphorus, where many the oldest monuments in Istanbul can still be found (the Basilica cistern, hippodrome, the Milion, and the column of Constantine). The city then extended to the other side of ...


4

Firstly, I would guess cheese is a food made to last but the more important point is that modern ideas of what is spoiled and what is acceptable to eat are probably quite different than the way people felt about it 100 years ago. People did not have effective refrigerators and food was carried by slower transportation. So things like brown spots on bananas ...


4

Depends on the size of the balneum, the size of the community, and the number of competitors. "Small bathhouses, called balneum (plural balnea), might be privately owned, while they were public in the sense that they were open to the populace for a fee. " Wikipedia "These Roman baths varied from simple to exceedingly elaborate structures, and they varied ...


4

Disclaimer: this answer is not based on literature (primary or secondary), but on the wiki page you have linked, and some general information about Republican Rome. In the time of the Roman Republic, the professional legions if the Empire did not yet exists. The legionaries were citizen- soldiers: farmers and craftsmen who enlisted for specific campaigns. ...


3

This coin appears to be showing Constantine I, timeframe 307-337 A.D. Numerous similar coins can be seen on this search, mainly at commercial sites. A good look from a site here The above site lists this coin as: DIVUS CONSTANTINE I THE GREAT (Died 337). Ae. Antioch. Struck under Constantius II and Constans. Another good image can be seen here


3

Probably we're talking about Cincinnatus.


3

If you consider that the Roman army was originally a hoplite based army with a separate unit of skirmishers then the triarii were the last remnants of this system. There are a couple of instances of legacy ideals within the Roman army maintained for tradition. A simple one is the Italo-Corinthian helmet. This was a helmet which originated in the classic ...


3

There is a major definition problem here. The cultures you reference did not draw a distinction between church and state. To refuse to offer incense to the patron god of the state was to refuse the legitimacy of the state. One metaphor might be that to refuse incense was like refusing to pay taxes - god and the state deserved their due. In general, these ...


2

This quote, from Giuseppe Ricciotti's The Age of Martyrs: Christianity from Diocletian (284) to Constantine (337), appears to answer many of my questions simultaneously: …the whole of polytheistic teaching [of the Romans] was being transformed. Already some fifty years before Diocletian [c. 284], a kind of hierarchical confederation had unconsciously ...


2

Long time ago I wondered about the same. I always thought the Roman army (early imperial, of course) would beat the crap out of any opponent until the end of the middle ages. After learning a lot about history I had to change my opinion completely. No. 1: The Roman army was entirely professional. From the lowest recruit up to generals in command. Medieval ...


2

I'm not an expert on Roman military tactics, so I don't know how accurate this is, and they don't mention or link any specific scholarly sources, but I found a youtube video from an educational account about this. Hopefully someone who knows about this stuff can comment on its reliability, but they have rather a lot of historical videos of this kind of stuff,...


1

The Wikipedia article on the Gothic War explains a lot of the situation revolving around the status of Italy under the Goths and the reason the Eastern Roman Empire decided to invade. As I understand the issue, Odoacer legalized his position as you said by acting as a vassal of the Eastern Roman Emperor. But Zeno was mistrustful of Odoacer and sent Theodoric ...


1

To add to MAGolding's answer, Murad II may have been willing to arbitrate because it gave him influence over the internal politics of the shrunken and weakened Byzantine Empire. Constantine XI Palaiologos and The Empress Helena favoured union between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. They hoped that this would bring them support ...


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