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99

One key lies in their treatment of illegitimacy, or bastardy. In Roman society, as is typical of the West in general, illegitimate children had no formal link to their fathers. This was true from the earliest times, and lasted well into the Imperial period before a softening of the laws occurred in the second and third centuries.1 In the Roman setting, ...


56

I don't know uniforms well enough to be completely affirmative, but all your clues and the physionomy of the boy remind me of French Imperial Prince Napoleon, son of Napoleon III. He was born in 1856 and the pictures on his wiki page show a strong ressemblance (in my humble opinion) with the boy on your photo. On this picture, he even wears a similar ...


53

You're describing the mian (冕), a style of classical Chinese head dress that was indeed worn by successive Emperors of China. The basic design consisted of a hat secured to the head with a red string (纓), topped by a rectangular board (綖), with threads of gems (旒) attached to its front and back edges, and two "ear plugs" (充耳) hanging off the two sides. ...


53

In terms of continuously dateable genealogy, it is probably the Bagratids of Georgia, the current head of which is disputed between three branches. The Georgian branch was founded by Adarnase in the late 700s as branch of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty, though descendants then fabricated an origin story claiming descent from the biblical David, which is ...


32

This has been quoted a few times, in slight variation, like here, with attribution indeed to Disraeli: — Harry Blamires: "The Victorian Age of Literature", Longman literature guides, Longman, 1988. p10 (gBooks) And used here as well: He [Prince Albert] never became really popular with the aristocracy or the working man, but it was otherwise with ...


30

Genghis Khan's wife, Börte was kidnapped by the Merkits tribe, and reportedly also given away as a wife. Börte would be Genghis' only empress, though he would take several morganatic wives in addition. Although Temujin was only 16 at the time, he was head of his tribe and she was chosen in an arranged marriage to cement an alliance between his Borjigin clan ...


29

Bernard of Italy, illegitimate son of Pepin of Italy (himself a legitimate son of Charlemagne), became king of the Lombards in 810. Edward the Martyr, briefly king of England from 975 to 978, was probably illegitimate; his father Edgar I acknowledged his younger son Æthelred as the only rightful heir (but Edgar's opinion lost most of its strength when he ...


28

When Peter 'upgraded' the Russian title of 'tsar' (царь) to 'emperor' (император), this meant that the corresponding titles would have to be given a similar jump upwards. The specific issue arose because the Westernized 'emperor', though sharing its root with the Slavonized 'tsar' in the Latin 'caesar', was a more important title than that of tsar, the two ...


26

@SteveBird makes a good point. You would have to go a good way back to find any ancestor of Britain's present Queen who was actually born in Germany. But the reason for so many Germans in the 18th & 19th centuries may have been due to the fact that there were so many German royals. In 1866 there were 42 German states, including Austria and Prussia. ...


26

Louis Philippe II the Duke of Orléans, who avidly supported the French Revolution - arguably, the quintessential revolution of the modern era. As First Prince of the Blood, he was one of the most senior members of the ruling Bourbon dynasty. In fact his son would assume the French throne in 1830. I think he qualifies both as a royal and member of the high ...


25

Nothing happens at all. This is essentially a question of two parts. Part one is unstated, but important, and it is the question of who is legitimate monarch. First of all, legitimacy does not, as Tony Robinson claims, rest on blood. Legitimacy rests on being accepted as legitimate. This sounds like a tautology, and on some level it is, but on another ...


25

There is a lot that we do not fully understand about the details of the succession in Anglo Saxon England. Indeed, it seems quite likely that the role of the council ('witena ġemōt', or 'Witan', if you prefer) changed over time. It seems certain that the council maintained some role in the succession process throughout the period. However, in general, the ...


20

According to this article, Once in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, Elizabeth learned how to change a wheel, deconstruct and rebuild engines, and drive ambulances and other vehicles. Joining the ATS as an honorary Second Subaltern, Elizabeth achieved the rank of honorary Junior Commander within five months. [..] Unlike the other members of the ATS, ...


19

No. there is no evidence to backup this claim. Like it says on Wikipedia: The Countess frequently appeared in men's clothing and even in military uniform. Some sources alleged that August the Strong made his own daughter his favorite; however, this cannot be proved. It was a rumor going around at the time. She was apparently of exceptional beauty and had ...


18

(Note that there are no Kings and Queens of England anymore. The last person with that title was Queen Anne. Victoria and Elizabeth II are more properly "Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland".) Elizabeth I reigned for 45 years, and ruled during the defeat of the Spanish Armada, which marked the rise of England as the pre-eminent naval ...


16

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without children),...


16

According to the Catholics of the time, Elizabeth I was illegitimate, since the Catholic church never recognised the marriage of Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Not that Elizabeth was ever king ;-) Even the Protestant parliament of England retroactively declared her illegitimate, with no place in the succession, when they annulled the same marriage (in 1536?). ...


16

There wasn't one. The Princess of Wales is a courtesy title. That is, its holders are not created princesses in their own right, but rather accorded that honour only by virtue of marriage to the Prince of Wales. Accordingly, in the absence of such a prince (or when one is unmarried), there could be no Princess of Wales. Under British law, any title to be ...


15

Although Henry V made English the official language of government, there is some debate as to whether it was him or his father, Henry IV, who was the first king to use English as a first language. On balance it was probably Henry IV (for the reasons stated below) so it follows that his predecessor Richard II was the last king whose first language was French. ...


15

Technically, at that time kings were decided upon by the Witenagemot (assembly). We're not sure how pro-forma that typically was, but this was the accepted way a new King gained their legitimacy as ruler. No man can make himself king, but the people has the choice to choose as king whom they please; but after he is consecrated as king, he then has ...


14

So your fantasy is about about a common man obtaining a title by marrying into a noble family? To my best knowledge the chances of this happening are slim. What is more likely is that the woman (or at least her children) will lose her title. As cases in points in recent history, consider Alfonso Díez Carabantes (the third husband of the Duchess of Alba and ...


14

I took taninamdar's advice to look up the sources from the Wikipedia article in order to answer my own question. One reference in the article refers to four other sources: "Bradford, p. 45; Lacey, p. 148; Marr, p. 100; Pimlott, p. 75". Each of these authors has published more than one book on Queen Elizabeth II. Googling I found the following books: Sarah ...


14

Prior to the adoption of Mountbatten in February 1947, Prince Philip did not use a surname. In the navy during World War II, he was known as HRH Prince Philip. Thus, while serving as First Lieutenant on HMS Wallace (Oct. 1942 to Jan. 1944), he was Lt HRH Prince Philip, RN. He was also referred to as Sub-Lieutenant Prince Philip of Greece in the 12th of ...


13

Cleopatra's bastard with Julius Caesar, Caesarion, ruled jointly with his mother as the last kings of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. After Caesar's assassination, Cleopatra went on to acquire a set of bastard twins from Mark Antony. Had they won their bid for power against Octavian, the male twin Alexander Helios would have been on track to succeed as the ...


13

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


13

There was a referendum to restore the Albanian monarchy in 1997, following a period of severe unrest. The official results of the referendum had the motion failing by a 2-1 margin; the monarchists then claimed that the result was invalid, riots broke out, and the crown prince Leka fled the country and was tried in absentia for inciting rebellion. The ...


13

As mentioned already by Mark C. Wallace, one of the key aspects of the English Civil War was the divine right of the Monarchy. The Bill of Rights Act 1689 established that the succession to the throne is regulated by Parliament and not by any divine right. The following lines state that James the II abdicated the government and left the throne vacant when ...


13

Short Answer There is no clear primary source evidence for either why the Hecatomnid dynasty (c. 395 - 334 BC) siblings married each other or why it was 'permitted' (by which I take it to mean why the citizens didn't drum the siblings out of town), but the former question is discussed in some detail by E. D. Carney in Women and Dunasteia in Caria. While ...


12

The Romans had two institutions that the Eastern rulers lacked: monogamy, and primogeniture. Monogamy meant that even wealthy Romans would have only one wife. One might have plenty of mistresses on the side, but these weren't "wives. Which led to the next thing, primogeniture. That is, inheritance of the family line by the one and only oldest son, begotten ...


12

If you go back enough in time it's possible, in that pre-islamic religion in the Arab Peninsula was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions. But it's implausible that one would be able to trace the family's dominant faith that far back in time. The House of Saud was founded in 1744, with origins only tracing back to the mid-15th ...


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