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71

Yes. King John of England attempted to take the throne from Richard I while he was on crusade. Richard's delayed return was due to the fact that he had been taken prisoner by Leopold V, Duke of Austria, and then handed over to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. John, in the meantime, took advantage of his brother's imprisonment, gathering supporters around him ...


57

Here are six brothers, sons of Abdul Aziz (1902-53), who have been (and the most recent still is) Kings of Saudi Arabia: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a3/House_of_Saud_rulers.svg/1024px-House_of_Saud_rulers.svg.png


46

The only candidate apart from Catherine the Great would appear to be Tamar the Great of Georgia. Born in 1166, she ruled as sole monarch from 1184 to 1213 (or possibly 1210), having been made co-ruler by her father George III in 1178. However, her early years were not easy ones as nobles sought to restrict her authority: Powerful lords took advantage of ...


41

Seven brothers Seven of the sons of Ismail Ibn Sharif of the Morocco Alaouite dynasty were monarchs. Ismail ruled from 1672 to 1727 and had 525 sons and 342 daughters according to Wikipedia (or 888 according to the Guiness Book of Records). Control changed hands many times. The ones who became Sultan were: Ahmad ruled 1727–1728, then 1728–1729 Abdul Malek ...


39

Aristide Briand was Prime Minister of France 6 non-contiguous times: Jul. 24, 1909 - Mar 2, 1911 Jan 21, 1913 - Mar. 22, 1913 Oct. 29, 1915 - Mar. 20, 1917 Jan. 16, 1921 - Jan 15, 1922 Nov. 28, 1925 - Jul. 20, 1926 Jul. 29, 1929 - Nov. 2, 1929 for a total of eleven separate administrations: Briand's first Government, 24 July 1909 – 3 November 1910 ...


30

Although he was not an heir to the French throne, general Claude François de Malet attempted a coup in France, in 1812. After escaping from captivity, he informed the National Guard that Napoleon had died in Russia. He succedeed to release two generals, arrested a few others and tried to seize the power in Paris. The same day, he presented letters to Colonel ...


24

The first (known) female Pharaoh is Sobekneferu (or Neferusobek) that ruled Egypt three centuries before Hatshepsut, from 1806 to 1802 BC. Sobekneferu is probably the earlier female ruler (in general, not only Egypt's) whose name we know and for whose reign we can be reasonably certain. James Henry Breasted regarded Hatshepsut as "the first great woman in ...


24

This would basically come down to how we translate words from foreign languages, but scholars do translate the royal titles of a few ancient Egyptian ruling queens with the word “great,” and at least one has been called “The Great” by a modern historian. Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt in the fifteenth century BCE, held the title usually translated Great Royal ...


20

Eleftherios Venizelos was the Prime Minister of Greece for seven non-consecutive times: October 6, 1910 - February 25, 1915 August 10, 1915 - September 24, 1915 June 14, 1917 - November 4, 1920 January 24, 1924 - February 19, 1924 July 4, 1928 - May 26, 1932 June 5, 1932 - November 4, 1932 January 16, 1933 - March 6, 1933 Charilaos Trikoupis is another ...


19

If you look to the medieval era I'm quite certain that you will find a lot of examples, however the problem will often arise that the definition of "the ruler of the country" may be debated. Some regions that were part of a larger country before or after were completely independent entities for centuries. On the other hand someone with a formal grandiose ...


17

As I remember, the state of Texcoco in Mexico had several generations of sons succeeding fathers, and then several brothers succeeding brothers. The last long reigning ruler, Nezahulapilli reigned from 1472 to 1515. His son Cacamatzin (1483-1520) reigned from 1516 to 1520. He died during La Noche Triste during the Spanish conquest. His half-brother ...


17

The person that comes to mind is Getulio Vargas of Brazil. He first took power in 1930, in a military-backed coup, after being defeated in a Presidential race, ousting the outgoing President and President-elect. He ruled as a virtual dictator until 1945, at which time he was forced to step down from the Presidency, and allow democratic elections, because his ...


14

The oldest would appear to be the Old Kingdom pharaoh Neferefre (5th dynasty) who is estimated to have died around 2458 BC. When found, The tomb was lined and sealed with pink granite. It contained parts of a pink sarcophagus, alabaster Canopic jars, alabaster offering containers and the remnants of a mummy. Upon investigation, archaeologists believe the ...


13

Marcus Valerius Corvus was consul six times and dictator twice = total 8. He apparently lived to be around 100. 348 BC consul 346 BC consul 343 BC consul 342 BC dictator 335 BC consul 302 BC dictator 300 BC consul 299 BC suffect consul (he replaced another consul who had died so there was a gap between this one and the consulship in 300) Titus Quinctius ...


13

This is a little bit of a stretch, as one was granted the title, but never gained control of the country, but five of the sons of Thorfinn Skull-splitter were Jarls of the Orkneys, which was more or less independent: Arnfinn Havard Ljot Skuli Hlodvir (Lots of interesting stuff here: the first three brothers were all married to the same woman, Ragnhild, ...


13

One example might be An Lushan, a Chinese warlord who eventually became blinded by some kind of chronic eye problem. He rebelled against the Tang Empire in 755, and declared himself Emperor in 756. Aside from initiating a brutal war that led to mass civilian deaths, he also ordered the mass execution of Tang royal family members as well as the families of ...


13

One answer that I am aware of is Erico Dandalo - Doge of Venice - was definitely blind Emperor Manuel Comnenus "ordered his eyes to be blinded with glass; and his eyes were uninjured, but he saw nothing (1) and I would consider him to be rather shrewd & ruthless. His avarice was responsible for the fall of Zara & Constantinople in the 4th ...


11

I'm not sure if this counts or not, since it wasn't a monarchy, the successor actually thought the ruler was dead initially (as a result of the detonation of the bomb that he had planted,) and it also wasn't in the Middle Ages, but Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg comes to mind. In what was probably the closest an assassination plot came to succeeding against ...


11

Kubaba or Kug-bau is said to have been a Sumerian ruler circa 2500 BCE and possibly the oldest rags-to-riches story that we know of: she was an alewife/tavern-keeper before she became queen. Kubaba (in the Weidner or Esagila Chronicle; Sumerian: Kug-Bau) is the only queen on the Sumerian King List, which states she reigned for 100 years – roughly in the ...


8

First, the relationship was Mughal Empire -> Timur Empire -> Mongol ; I mean that while the Mughal Empire had distant Turco-Mongol origins, its most direct influence was that of the Timurid Empire. It was under the Timurid Empire that the Turco-Mongols adapted to the Persian culture (and passed that tradition to the Mughal Empire). The Timurid ...


8

Among the equivalents of prime ministers, Mehmed Said Pasha (1830-1914) was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire eight times: 1879-1880, 1880-82, 1882, 1882-85, 1895, 1901-03, 1908, and 1911-12. He was fortunate that it was no longer common to execute grand viziers when they lost their office, especially since during most of his times in office he would have ...


7

Another example was the (Byzantine) Roman Emperor John Komnenos. This was done according to some sources (Runciman, I think, but Wikipedia does not seem to agree) with the explicit consent of his dying predecessor and father Alexios Komnenos. Afraid that Alexios's daughter and son-in-law would try to stage a coup when Alexios died, John took his father's ...


7

It is hard to prove a negative but we do not have any sources that mention any public resistance or open rebellion against Queen Hatshepsut's rule. Marc Van de Mieroop in his Egypt textbook A History of Ancient Egypt writes that the New Kingdom period is probably the one of best documented period of Ancient Egypt. We have surviving accounts from not only the ...


6

What about Simeon II of Bulgaria? After WW2, he was exiled: On 15 September 1946, a referendum was held in the presence of the Soviet army. It resulted in a 97% approval for republic and abolition of the monarchy. On 16 September 1946, the royal family was exiled from Bulgaria. Simeon II has never signed any abdication papers—neither at that ...


6

tl;dr It would be good to distinguish between blind rulers in the cultural domain of European (post-Roman) Christianity and blind rulers elsewhere. There were an awful lot of blind European monarchs. This is due to the fact that rivals were often (very, very often) blinded to make them unfit to rule and occasionally ascended to the throne anyway. On a ...


6

Thutmose I It would be very unlikely that Hatshepsut managed to convince the people of the time that she was a man, considering she was the eldest daughter of Thutmose I, according to the Britannica. Hatshepsut, Britannica encyclopedia Hatshepsut, the elder daughter of the 18th-dynasty king Thutmose I Thutmose I, by Captmondo Thutmose II What would make ...


6

A Pharaoh must rule over all of Egypt; other sovereigns who rule over only part of Egypt are mere kings. One might think of Pharaoh being similar to a German or Anglo-Saxon King of Kings, except for the absence of subordinate kings. I would definitely not use Emperor as a synonym, as I can find no indication that the tile of Pharaoh implies imperial ...


5

The answers to this (What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?) question should show which Europeans were heads of state and/or heads of government of their countries the most times. You have to be careful to see which of them were elected to office consecutively and which were elected or usurped the throne non ...


4

Bankers, businessmen, landowners, nobles and princes all gave active support to the British. Indigenous collaborators and "traitors" such as Mir Jafar were key elements the British exploited to their own advantage. They promoted and demoted officials and bureaucrats to suit their ends. These are well recorded- the active support by the Jagat Seths and other ...


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