71 votes
Accepted

Has an heir ever made the country believe the current ruler died in order to take over the throne?

Yes. King John of England attempted to take the throne from Richard I while he was on crusade. Richard's delayed return was due to the fact that he had been taken prisoner by Leopold V, Duke of ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
58 votes

What is the highest number of brothers who became ruler of the same country?

Here are six brothers, sons of Abdul Aziz (1902-53), who have been (and the most recent still is) Kings of Saudi Arabia: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a3/House_of_Saud_rulers....
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
46 votes
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Who was the first female ruler to be given the suffix, "the great"?

The only candidate apart from Catherine the Great would appear to be Tamar the Great of Georgia. Born in 1166, she ruled as sole monarch from 1184 to 1213 (or possibly 1210), having been made co-ruler ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
44 votes
Accepted

What is the highest number of brothers who became ruler of the same country?

Seven brothers Seven of the sons of Ismail Ibn Sharif of the Morocco Alaouite dynasty were monarchs. Ismail ruled from 1672 to 1727 and had 525 sons and 342 daughters according to Wikipedia (or 888 ...
JLK's user avatar
  • 2,213
39 votes

What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?

Aristide Briand was Prime Minister of France 6 non-contiguous times: Jul. 24, 1909 - Mar 2, 1911 Jan 21, 1913 - Mar. 22, 1913 Oct. 29, 1915 - Mar. 20, 1917 Jan. 16, 1921 - Jan 15, 1922 Nov. 28, 1925 ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
30 votes

Has an heir ever made the country believe the current ruler died in order to take over the throne?

Although he was not an heir to the French throne, general Claude François de Malet attempted a coup in France, in 1812. After escaping from captivity, he informed the National Guard that Napoleon had ...
Mjollnir's user avatar
  • 409
24 votes

Who was the first female ruler to be given the suffix, "the great"?

This would basically come down to how we translate words from foreign languages, but scholars do translate the royal titles of a few ancient Egyptian ruling queens with the word “great,” and at least ...
Davislor's user avatar
  • 1,547
21 votes
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What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?

Eleftherios Venizelos was the Prime Minister of Greece for seven non-consecutive times: October 6, 1910 - February 25, 1915 August 10, 1915 - September 24, 1915 June 14, 1917 - November 4, 1920 ...
Theodore Tsirpanis's user avatar
19 votes

What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?

If you look to the medieval era I'm quite certain that you will find a lot of examples, however the problem will often arise that the definition of "the ruler of the country" may be debated. Some ...
OON's user avatar
  • 984
17 votes

What is the highest number of brothers who became ruler of the same country?

As I remember, the state of Texcoco in Mexico had several generations of sons succeeding fathers, and then several brothers succeeding brothers. The last long reigning ruler, Nezahulapilli reigned ...
MAGolding's user avatar
  • 19.3k
14 votes
Accepted

Who is the oldest ruler whose remains can be positively identified?

The oldest would appear to be the Old Kingdom pharaoh Neferefre (5th dynasty) who is estimated to have died around 2458 BC. When found, The tomb was lined and sealed with pink granite. It contained ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
13 votes

Have there been ruthless rulers who held on to power despite being blinded?

One answer that I am aware of is Erico Dandalo - Doge of Venice - was definitely blind Emperor Manuel Comnenus "ordered his eyes to be blinded with glass; and his eyes were uninjured, but he saw ...
ed.hank's user avatar
  • 6,685
13 votes

Have there been ruthless rulers who held on to power despite being blinded?

One example might be An Lushan, a Chinese warlord who eventually became blinded by some kind of chronic eye problem. He rebelled against the Tang Empire in 755, and declared himself Emperor in 756. ...
Semaphore's user avatar
  • 97.6k
13 votes

What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?

Marcus Valerius Corvus was consul six times and dictator twice = total 8. He apparently lived to be around 100. 348 BC consul 346 BC consul 343 BC consul 342 BC dictator 335 BC consul 302 BC dictator ...
JLK's user avatar
  • 2,213
13 votes

What is the highest number of brothers who became ruler of the same country?

This is a little bit of a stretch, as one was granted the title, but never gained control of the country, but five of the sons of Thorfinn Skull-splitter were Jarls of the Orkneys, which was more or ...
andejons's user avatar
  • 5,661
12 votes

Has an heir ever made the country believe the current ruler died in order to take over the throne?

I'm not sure if this counts or not, since it wasn't a monarchy, the successor actually thought the ruler was dead initially (as a result of the detonation of the bomb that he had planted,) and it also ...
reirab's user avatar
  • 771
10 votes
Accepted

Why was the Mughal Empire Persian oriented?

First, the relationship was Mughal Empire -> Timur Empire -> Mongol ; I mean that while the Mughal Empire had distant Turco-Mongol origins, its most direct influence was that of the Timurid ...
SJuan76's user avatar
  • 12.4k
8 votes

Has an heir ever made the country believe the current ruler died in order to take over the throne?

Another example was the (Byzantine) Roman Emperor John Komnenos. This was done according to some sources (Runciman, I think, but Wikipedia does not seem to agree) with the explicit consent of his ...
C Monsour's user avatar
  • 4,244
8 votes

What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?

Among the equivalents of prime ministers, Mehmed Said Pasha (1830-1914) was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire eight times: 1879-1880, 1880-82, 1882, 1882-85, 1895, 1901-03, 1908, and 1911-12. He ...
MAGolding's user avatar
  • 19.3k
6 votes
Accepted

Did ordinary people during Hatshepsut's reign know she was a woman?

Thutmose I It would be very unlikely that Hatshepsut managed to convince the people of the time that she was a man, considering she was the eldest daughter of Thutmose I, according to the Britannica. ...
John Strachan's user avatar
6 votes

What is the significance of "Pharaoh" versus "King" in ancient Egypt?

A Pharaoh must rule over all of Egypt; other sovereigns who rule over only part of Egypt are mere kings. One might think of Pharaoh being similar to a German or Anglo-Saxon King of Kings, except for ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
6 votes

What is the significance of "Pharaoh" versus "King" in ancient Egypt?

Technically speaking, ancient Egyptian rulers wre all kings, and pharaoh was more or less a nickname for the ruler which later gradually became an official title. Pharaoh (/ˈfɛəroʊ/, US also /ˈfeɪ....
MAGolding's user avatar
  • 19.3k
5 votes

Have there been ruthless rulers who held on to power despite being blinded?

tl;dr It would be good to distinguish between blind rulers in the cultural domain of European (post-Roman) Christianity and blind rulers elsewhere. There were an awful lot of blind European monarchs. ...
0range's user avatar
  • 2,726
5 votes

Who was the first woman ruler?

Kubaba is a queen (the only one) mentioned in the Sumerian King list as ruler of Kish. According to Wikipedia that puts her at roughly 2500-2330 BC. I doubt there are any earlier female Sumerian ...
Francis Davey's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Which head of state had the most gaps in their rule?

The answers to this (What is the most number of times someone has become leader of a European country?) question should show which Europeans were heads of state and/or heads of government of their ...
MAGolding's user avatar
  • 19.3k
4 votes

Have there been ruthless rulers who held on to power despite being blinded?

Vasily II of Moscow. He was blinded by his enemies. According to Wikipedia his long rein was plagued by the greatest civil war in old Russian history.
Alex's user avatar
  • 38.9k
4 votes
Accepted

Is there any example of a monarch being presumed dead but returning after the heir ascended to the throne?

I can think of one example. Tamar, the mighty Queen of Kings of Georgia (c. 1160-1213) married as her 2nd Husband David Soslan from Alania (who later sources claimed was also a member of the ...
MAGolding's user avatar
  • 19.3k
4 votes

Is there any example of a monarch being presumed dead but returning after the heir ascended to the throne?

The various False Dmitriys who appeared during Russia's Time of Troubles following the death of Ivan the Terrible are probably the best-known examples. The real Dmitry, Ivan the Terrible's youngest ...
Spencer's user avatar
  • 5,315
3 votes

Was there ever a series of leaders who passed their positions to the most capable candidate?

Yes, the period of the five good emperors in Rome, for example. However, they didn't do that because they thought it the very best solution. They did it because those emperors didn't have any children ...
Jos's user avatar
  • 22k

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