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56

The whole point of the reign of Peter the Great was to "modernize" (westernize) Russia. Per the wikipedia article, "Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Russia.[10] Heavily influenced by his advisors from Western Europe, Peter reorganized the Russian army along modern lines and dreamed of making Russia a maritime power. He faced much ...


48

This question gets really complicated really fast. After the breakup, each of the former Soviet republics established its own set of laws, and then these laws were rewritten multiple times. The region also includes half a dozen unrecognized states (Transnistria, Artsakh, Abkhazia, Ossetia, DPR, and LPR) each of them having its own very original definition of ...


39

This is based on an Estonian radio show, 'Müstiline Venemaa' ('Mystical Russia') by historian David Vseviov, chapters 'The Financing of Bolshevik Activities', which described the pre-1917 financing, and 'Banking. Money Reform' and 'Speculations around Money', which described activities after Bolsheviks formed the government. Summary Answer This is to ...


27

When Peter 'upgraded' the Russian title of 'tsar' (царь) to 'emperor' (император), this meant that the corresponding titles would have to be given a similar jump upwards. The specific issue arose because the Westernized 'emperor', though sharing its root with the Slavonized 'tsar' in the Latin 'caesar', was a more important title than that of tsar, the two ...


17

While the integration of these territories into the Russian Empire took place at the same time, they were subject to wholly different methods of integration, one a conquest but a conquest which wasn't resisted by the local people, and the other a conquest which was actively resisted by the local population for decades. Finland The Russo-Swedish War of 1808–...


14

Considering the statement "post-Soviet states grant citizenship primarily on the basis of blood, and not birthplace": the two shouldn't be seen in contradiction in this case. Jus sanguinis means transmittance of citizenship between generations. But as republican citizenship lost its importance after 1978 (see below) the place of birth or residence ...


13

The theory about Chinese bodyguards of Lenin appears to be bogus. As far as I know, it first surfaced in the 1950s during the period of "great friendship" between the Soviet and Chinese people (only to disappear in 1960s, with deterioration of the relations between the two countries). It again resurfaced few years ago in the form of Sino-Russian made-for-TV ...


9

According to this reference the Soviets fielded anti-tank guns and were aided by fog: The 11th Tank Regiment also attacked the Soviet forces. About 40 Japanese tanks run over the Soviet soldiers and rushed into the beach. The Soviet soldiers fired to the tanks with AT guns, which were unloaded on the beach in a hurry. As a fog gathered over the beach, it ...


8

Not Austria, Prussia received the 'best share' in the end. It's not about size. Neither population nor territorial size. It's purely location, location, location. In terms of strategic positioning. It was most strategically important for Prussia itself, and a long standing goal, not just a 'border correction', but arrondisement and strategic importance. For ...


8

The Russian expansion east is really interesting. It is covered in depth by "China and Russia: The Great Game" by O Edmund Clubb. Basically, there were many parties vying for control of the land. Qing China and Russia both had a huge interest in controlling Siberia, as they were well aware of the threat from nomadic steppe peoples. For example, the ...


7

The question is based on false premises: The Eastern European Plain is often claimed as the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. If this is where the seeds of European civilisation were first sown, why did it take so long to found cities here? The Proto-Indo-Europeans, whereever they lived, did not sow the seeds of European civilization, they sowed the ...


7

(This answer was originally here: https://history.stackexchange.com/a/32715/1569) In brief The referendum was not about "continued governance by the communist party" because by the time the referendum was held the communist party had already effectively abdicated its power - the train had certainly left that station by then. What the referendum did ...


7

These were the hallmarks of the Rococo style of painting and building, that originated in central Europe around the middle of the 18th century, and found its way to Russia in the early part of the 19th century. According to Wikipedia, it featured "warm pastel colours (whitish-yellow, cream-colored, pearl greys, very light blues)." This style evolved from ...


7

I personally doubt this report's accuracy. I've seen numerous reports, news articles of the time 1918-20 in the American/British press that this just seems another one far from reality (like those in which the Bolsheviks were defeated etc). From what I know, since 1918 the Bolsheviks started "prodrazvyorstka" — commandeering grain from peasants. From this ...


7

It is important to understand why Maria Theresa protested Austrian involvement. It wasn't that she didn't want Austria to succeed over her neighbours, but rather in her mind it was immoral of them to cut apart another God-given crown (and especially one which had saved Austria herself from the Ottoman threat only a century previously). Maria Theresa ...


7

I was born in Moldova (one of the former 15 republics of the USSR). After the break of the Soviet Union my parents (one was born in Russia, the other one in Ukraine) obtained the Moldovan citizenship as they lived in Moldova at that time of the break and owned real estate there. I got Moldovan citizenship as I was born in Moldova. Later on my mom got her ...


7

First of all, Alexander Ulyanov was a member of a terrorist organization (the terrorist faction of "People’s Will"), planning an assassination of Russian tzar, Alexander III, on the 6th year anniversary (March 1, 1887) of assassination of Alexander II, see here. The plot was foiled and most plotters were hanged (one, a former military officer, ...


6

They are wearing the double breasted 1907 tunic which was issued to the regular army except the guards which had a more elaborate version. He wears the Black papaha which was preferred by Cossacks and Soldiers in Siberian regiments. Though i just realised that this tunic was issued to troops on foot (Infantry, Engineers and artillery) and cossacks were on ...


6

Willy Brandt Willy Brandt--who went on to become the Chancellor of West Germany from 1969 to 1974--operated covertly against the Axis before and during World War II. During the 1930s, Brandt, a German national, worked with the international communist movement, including the Soviets, against the National Socialists in Germany. The name Willy Brandt itself was ...


6

Russian Wikipedia claims this: Together with his brothers he was involved in revolutionary activities and was arrested at the age of 12. He was forced to emigrate with his family to Switzerland . And that isn't referenced directly but apparently based on the following account: At 12, Boris became a revolutionary. Together with his older brothers, he made ...


6

I checked the book "THE COSSACKS AND HIGHLANDERS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR," Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific Conference, Rostov-on-Don, 18–19 September 2014. The number of cossacks taken prisoners of war during the 1st world war is estimated 6% (pages 33, 125). This was much lower than the number of prisoners of war in other parts of the ...


6

I will share some excerpts from the highly relevant article, "The Negro in Imperial Russia: A Preliminary Sketch" (1976), in which Allison Blakely argues that imperial Russia was a land of opportunity where [blacks] could not only survive, but could attain high social position. This is striking not only because of the absence of the stigma ...


5

There have been trips done in well equipped 4x4s in recent years. You can generally find more info searching in Russian. Several examples: There is a youtube video from 2016 and corresponding news article and blog writeup. A group made it in 2013. An article from 2009. and a youtube channel from the overlanders. For a rough map of the route here is a map (...


5

With a numerical superiority and a technical inferiority, would the Russians have done better to opt for a battle of attrition instead... perhaps using a line abreast formation? They tried. At 12:15 in response to sighting real live Japanese torpedo boats, Rozhestvensky ordered his First Division battleships into line abreast. Imperator Aleksandr III turned ...


5

I'm not seeing anything specifically about the tanks, so something looking at a full action report would probably be a better answer. However, just looking over what's there... Tanks can be quite vulnerable to aircraft, and to anything with really big guns outside of their own limited firing range that they can't get at, like a ship or offshore gun battery. ...


5

Related, probably Yes. Descended from, probably Not. Of course a quick look at the wiki page for Alexander von Benckendorff tells us the connection isn't one of descent : Children 3 daughters So we know we are looking for some other connection. Starting with the IMDB biography for Carolyn Seymour we find: Grandaughter of Moura Budberg and niece of ...


5

Firstly, this greatly depends on how the GDP was back-calculated for those times. This is a difficult task as I've described elsewhere here. For reference, I've copied in the table for a quick comparison between "Finland" and "Russia" between 1830 and 1913 as given on the OP's link under "Europe 1830–1938 (Bairoch)": I quickly ...


5

Cossacks were taken prisoners after that incident. They were not all shot on sight. This single, unsourced line on Wikipedia is not credible, and certainly at least an unsustained vast exaggeration if understood as 'valid description for the entire rest of the war'. During the war, that is after this incident from 1914, Germany and Austria Hungary took a ...


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