18

Lenin, and all the Bolsheviks, believed that the USSR needed to industrialise very rapidly, so that it could defend itself effectively against foreign attacks. The Russian Empire had performed poorly against the Germans. The allies attacked the Bolsheviks, and arguably only failed because their countries were war-weary. There were two camps here. Bukharin ...


12

tl;dr Nobody knows. If you haven't found anything conclusive, you are not alone: there's no agreement among the historians, either. Some say Lenin was not at all responsible, that the execution was sanctioned by the local government and that Lenin and the top party members were informed about that post factum. Some say Lenin was the one who gave the orders. ...


10

Joseph Stalin was, for most of his life, a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolshevik faction) (RSDLP(b)) and its precursor (RSDLP) and inheritor (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, CPSU) parties. He was singularly responsible for that party's own history of itself, revised from 1937-1956, History of the Communist Party of the Soviet ...


10

The White Army was never a unified force but rather a number of armies of varying sizes which rarely co-ordinated their efforts. David Bullock, in The Russian Civil War 1918-22 states Overall, the White armies were middle class in orientation but were amazingly heterogeneous. Their ranks contained the full spectrum of former Russian society, from ...


9

Mirsky was saying that after the defeat by Japan in 1905 (and the resulting uprising), that Russia had to choose between "reform" and "anarchy." Nicholas had blocked, and the nobles had failed to produce, "reform," so the result would be "anarchy." For which jails might be an antidote.


8

It is very probable that your great grandfather was a member of Bund. Bund was a Jewish socialist party. They split from the rest of social democrats in 1903. After the revolution (November 1917) they were disbanded and many of them joined Bolsheviks. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Jewish_Labour_Bund_in_Lithuania,_Poland_and_Russia I make this ...


8

This was kept a secret for the same reason that FDR "was careful never to be seen in [a wheelchair] in public. Great care was also taken to prevent his being portrayed by the press in a way which would highlight his disability" - the severely ill heir subverts trust in government. This is especially true of the Russian monarchy, which claimed divine right.


8

In this article is a picture of French colonial troops in Ukraine: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Russia_intervention It also mentions: “By 14 April there were only 5,000 allied soldiers in , including 2,000 Greek and 1,500 Algerian and Senegalese troops.“ The men in the picture might be Senegalese fighting for France. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/...


7

The USS Grant was just one of the vessels took 2-3 times the Czech Legion soldiers home. They passed several important ports including Shanghai, Hong Kong and Colombo. Mostly were shipping on the route Vladivostok-Shanghai-Hong Kong-Singapore-Colombo-Suez-Port Said-and finally arrived at Trieste, then they took the railway back to Prague. I am now writing ...


7

Indeed, as @TomAu has said, the evacuation of the Czechs (and Slovaks!) was handled by the US government, which also presumably paid for it. I found a Romanian article about Victor Cădere, a Romanian diplomat operating at the same time and place with a similar objective: evacuation of Romanian nationals. This article provides some valuable information: ...


7

For "top of the pile", Wiki claims that 58% of the 1917 Party Central Committee was eliminated by 1938. 63% of the first Bolshevik government was executed by that time. Out of 267 1917-1934 Central Committee members, 34 died before 1937, 36 survived the Purge, the rest (74%) were executed. Of course, the "rank and file" Old Bolsheviks (the definition ...


6

Short answer From the available evidence, it would appear that maybe as many as half of the (around 40) fatalities were passersby. This can be tentatively deduced from the likely number of non-passersby in the two carriages attacked. However, other police placed around side streets were also targeted by the Bolsheviks gunmen. The only named victims are the ...


6

They benefited indirectly. First, according to the treaty Germany had to evacuate their troops in Ukraine, (and everywhere else on the territory of the former Russian empire) which made it possible for Russia to conquer Ukraine. I recall that in spring 1918 Russia surrendered to Germany (Brest-Litovsk treaty. This treaty was universally considered shameful ...


6

It may be wrong translation. In the original it's "Будем строить тюрьмы", an incomplete colloquial phrase which may, depending on intonation, be interpreted both as 1st person plural imperative (Let's build jails) and as 1st person plural future indicative (We'll be building jails). I suppose he gloomily said that his effort failed, so "we" (i. e. the ...


5

According to this Wikipedia page on the Revolution of 1905 (Bloody Sunday), socialism became important politically in Russia shortly after the accession of Tsar Alexander II in the 1860's and 1870's. A few reasons are offered: Agricultural policy. The Tsar ended serfdom making a class of tax-paying peasants. The taxes were too high and the amount of land ...


5

There is a dedicated article in the Russian segment of Wikipedia and its part is dedicated almost exactly to the period you are (or were at the time the question was asked) interested in Education in the Russian Empire (in Russian) It is rather large to translate it completely, so let me translate only those parts which have references to some statistical ...


5

Cossack was not just a regiment one can get drafted into, it was something hereditary and traditional. The cossacks lived in specific areas (Don, Kuban river basins, Siberia, etc), had their own settlements, basically forming sub-ethnic groups. Now, being a cossack is really nothing traditional in Belarus. Not now, neither in the beginning of the 20th ...


5

Well, these words most probably originate in Lenin's "Letters from afar" (March 1917). However, (1) Lenin wrote these words many(!) times in different combinations as the parts of larger sentences; (2) "The land" actually appears but once, while he was writing about Russian peasantry as a natural ally for the workers class; most often he spoke about "peace, ...


5

That varied. Over time and space – and sadly for description – not ever uniformly. Trying such a broad stroke nevertheless: Until the 1940s it went up and down at the same time and this differed between locations, social strata. While extremely poor and remote populations started to wear it, in urban contexts its use went down. But even in rural areas it ...


4

This is a good and easy question. Lenin won because he was a ruthless opportunist without a shred of consciousness. Ruthless Lenin did not hesitate to order mass executions and incarceration (in concentration camps) of anyone "tangential" ("прикосновенный") to a counterrevolutionary plot. Opportunist Lenin did not hesitate to change his policies 180° ...


4

"Peace, land, and bread" was a distillation of the complicated Communist doctrine that the peasantry could understand and get behind. As it is a simple three word slogan, I doubt there's a "definitive" version. And as we see below, "freedom" or "liberty" often also show up in Lenin's writing. "Peace, land, and bread" is often attributed to Lenin's The Tasks ...


4

From Robert Messie "Nicholas and Alexandra: The Classic Account of the Fall of the Romanov Dynasty." (If you do not know, Ilyich in this context means Lenin.) The link between the party leaders in Moscow who authorized the murder and the Ural Soviet which determined the time and method of execution was later described by Trotsky. He explained that he had ...


4

The military ranks were abolished. This does not mean command hierarchy was abolished. Soldiers were renamed to "fighters", officers to "commanders". A general became "comandarm" or "combrig" depending on what he commanded, an army or a brigade.


3

The official story on wikipedia and a few other places appears to be that they did not meet in 1917, but were rather married in 1917. The story I seem to find about their meeting was that it was at the home of a friend (Samuel Bonchek's) in New York in 1915. I did also find a bit about meeting at a Trotsky lecture too, but it took some searching. That work ...


3

I believe Mirsky kinda' saw what was coming and KNEW that the monarchy had failed in it's duty to the people. He then acknowledged, sarcastically, that if we won't help the people then we must contain them.


3

That microform collection appears to be published by Brill. Their website says that the searchable CD-ROM index is available for free, and they also have a 60-page guide in PDF format free for download. The collection itself is extremely expensive, which explains why only a handful of top research libraries in the US and Europe seem to have it in their ...


3

May be your great grandfather was mobilised to the army when the WW1 was started. The Russian army had about 1,3 million soldiers and after mobilization it was up to 5 million soldiers. Both brothers had got signs of the second degree "For excellent shooting from rifles": https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Нагрудный_знак_«За_отличную_стрельбу_из_винтовок» I ...


3

I've done some research via available pages of relevant books on the internet. It seems that in the following years of 'attack' campaign wearing veil at the schools was strictly forbidden as a dress code in the Uzbek Soviet SR as well as other Muslim populated regions in the country. However excerpts from the books indicate presence of veiled students in ...


3

They were the people who did not fit in any of the traditional strata of feudal society Russian society in the period you mentioned was roughly divided in four groups: nobility, clergy, peasants (serfs) and city(town) dwellers (merchants, craftsmen, etc ...). This is largely similar to other feudal European societies up to 19th century. Raznochintsy were ...


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