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Q Is rye bread Turkish? Are Swedes Africans? If you find the 'African Swedes' question senseless, then you see the level of absurdity the ad is playing on. If you answer 'Swedes are Africans' in the affirmative, then Rye bread is Turkish' might have a broken and wobbly leg to stand on. Swedes are humans, humans originate from Africa. True. But a long time ...


41

Well rye itself (the grain) appears to have first been domesticated in Anatolia, around 6,500 BC. So of course Neolithic people there (modern Turkey) would have been the first to make rye bread.* As for why it became popular in Scandinavia, that probably shouldn't be a mystery either. The European staple grains of wheat, barley, and rye are all closely ...


34

Yes. Residue analysis has found chemical signatures consistent with the presence of honey, and organic compounds associated with fermentation suggesting that mead was being drunk by the late Neolithic / early Bronze Age "Beaker peoples" in Britain and northern Europe. If you want more details of the processes involved, and the nature of the evidence, and ...


19

I'm seeing two different questions to address in here: What happened to the Celts, and Where did all these Germanics come from? What happened to the Celts? They got culturally absorbed by the Romans. The first thing that you should notice from the below two linguistic maps from 500 BC and AD is that the Green Celtic areas have been almost entirely absorbed ...


13

The short answer is we're not sure. When the Roman State was in decline and had to withdraw from England, (coincidentally?) Germanic tribal power was on the increase. That left a power vacuum in England at the same latitudes that coastal Germanic tribes were already living on the opposite shore of the North Sea. Unfortunately, it also left a literacy vacuum,...


10

Mead was the alcoholic drink of northern Europe, particularly "Celtic" northern Europe, e.g. the British Isles and northern France. It also figures prominently in the literature of the Scandinavians. This drink was made from honey rather than grapes, unlike Roman wine. Recent archaeological research suggests that "beakers" for producing mead (or its ...


9

Note: I'm taking "Danish people" to mean people that lived in Denmark. they could have attacked what is now Germany, Poland, Belgium, Holland and even Lithuania and France, traveling near the coast, which is much safer. However, they invaded Scotland and England (which are much further away) England was by no means "much" further away from France. The ...


9

My thesis is the one sempaiscuba♦ suggested. Your question is far more complex than one might think on first glance. In the short, it varies from place to place and it depends on where the crime was committed. First, one must understand that the raping and pillaging actions of the Vikings were commonplace in most areas and of most people in Europe, ...


9

As far as I'm aware, the law codes of Norse communities in the Viking-Age weren't written down, but were rather memorised by "law-givers". These gradually became more-or-less standardised by the end of the period when they were written down by Christian monks. As a result, we have to rely on the sagas. The 2015 thesis, Justice Done: Outlawry Crimes in ...


7

This 'early semitic influence on Germanic languages' is a 'popular' speculation. That is popular with very few scholars, linguists, but apparently a good seller. After listing a few similarities between semitic (modern Hebrew, as it seems) and Germanic languages, McWhorter specifies this, 'his' hypothesis: Okay—maybe. But what we want now is evidence ...


4

A few answers have pointed out the relative ease that you can get to England, so I won't go that route with this answer. I'll go with wealth and militancy, along with some revenge. England could be recognized as an easier conquest during this time frame, repeated war and intervention from a variety of sources left England relatively weak to foreign invasion....


3

An article about the origin of Viking horned helmets has a paragraph about this. It seems that the use of such horns in German and Scandinavian crests became common in the thirteenth century. While there does not seem to be direct evidence of the origin, it had long been believed that a tradition of wearing horns on helmets came first. Bull- and buffalo-...


3

Most countries' laws distinguished between "citizens" and "others," such as foreigners, or domestically held slaves. So what the Vikings considered "legal" when perpetrated against foreigners abroad would (probably) not be a "reasonable approximation" of what was acceptable at home. If anything, their "progressivity" at home would probably give "citizen" ...


3

A recurring theme of European history is the "drift" south--toward warmer climes. For instance, "Norsemen" left Norway and ended in Normandy, Swedes migrated to the south shore of the Baltic; Poles left the Baltic and headed toward the Balkans and the modern Ukraine, etc. The Celts "started" (around 500 B.C.) in modern Poland, Austria, Germany, and France (...


2

Romans brought wine. Before that the people of Northern Europe drank some kind of beer. Even in the Roman times the imported wine was expensive.


2

Before 450, Denmark was inhabited by the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes (from south to north). Geographically, the Jutes especially were the predecessors of the Danes. In the migration period, these three tribes left for Britain. Rome had abandoned Britain due to deteriorating conditions, which created a power vacuum. The Angles settled in Northeast Britain, the ...


1

Maybe No! People in northern France and England started just because to eat a great deal of 'rye bread'. They didn't have a favorable opinion of it – they called rye bread "black bread" and whined about eating it rather than "white bread" produced using refined wheat flour.


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