30

The peopling of Hawaii in the 1100s or 1200s may qualify. Drifters or shipwrecks could have arrived in the following centuries (for which see Braden's On the Probability of Pre-1778 Japanese Drifts to Hawaii), but the local culture was seemingly isolated from its Polynesian relatives, with its language and religion diverging significantly. James Cook's ...


20

If you look at the details of the oldest buildings on your list, all of them are built from fieldstone or minimally-shaped quarried stone. Further, the building materials were either found on-site or transported a relatively short distance. Most of the Fertile Crescent, and particularly Mesopotamia, does not have access to these building materials. ...


16

Actually, some of the oldest known man-made structures are in the Fertile Crescent (FC). The list in your question purposefully excludes sites like Göbekli Tepe, Tell es-Sultan, and Tell Qaramel, each in the FC, on the basis that they're not "recognizable standing buildings". As such there's inherent bias in the source you cite to exclude sites that have ...


13

It doesn't reach the bars in the OP of 200 settlers and 3 centuries, but in case you are interested in a smaller experience, Pitcairn Island was settled in 1790 by 27 people. The community they built remained uncontacted for decades and developed independantly for about half a century.


13

Where to start? Starting from the forced exchange of population between Greece and Turkey in 1923, you will find no shortage of examples, some of truly unbelievable scale. Among the most prominent ones are population transfer and Russian settlements in the former USSR (considering the brutality of the regime, I think it is beyond dispute that these satisfy ...


12

Yes, your suspicion is correct. Once man had boats (no later than 40,000 years ago) and the ability to live in the arctic, the island chains strung across the Bering Straight could not have been a significant barrier. There are native peoples who traverse it regularly today using native methods. As for evidence, archeologically we know about the Thule ...


10

It's not just Europe but even narrower. You'll notice the top 3 listed are all in France. Of the rest of the top 10, 4 are in the British Isles. I think Mark has about half of the answer: These structures are over 5 thousand years old. Human-made materials have trouble lasting that long, so the very nature of the question privileges areas with lots of ...


10

Sentinelese people from Andamans Sentineli and the North Sentinel Islanders, are an indigenous people who inhabit North Sentinel Island in the Bay of Bengal in India. They are considered one of the world's last uncontacted peoples. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentinelese Apart from these, Brazil and New Guinea have some of the largest uncontacted tribes ...


9

Many historians go so far as to equate the term "Civilization" with writing. So let's look at that. Egypt and Sumer (in Modern-day Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) both founded literate civilizations around 3000 BC. There appears to be an ongoing debate over which was first. Its tough to know for sure, just because reconciling ancient ...


9

I can think of several examples which are big enough, recent enough and well known enough not to be disputed. In 1938 the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, and civilians were free to settle there under the "Lebensraum" (breathing room) philosophy. The occupation was (at first) of an area populated mostly by ethnic Germans, but legally at least that doesn't ...


8

On a cultural level, yes. The Yupik peoples have inhabited both sides of Bering Straight for at least a couple of millennia, though there are distinctions between the Siberian and various Alaskan groups. Archaeological evidence on St. Lawrence Island, amidst the Bering Strait but slightly closer to Siberia than Alaska, demonstrates the cultural affinity to ...


6

I recently read a book, Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture that purports to challenge the foot traffic in two ways - first that ancient peoples were far more handy on boats than current thought, so a foot path isn't needed for them to spread, and second that evidence for passage from the Bering area is fairly thin in the period where ...


6

According to Archibald Campbell's account "A voyage around the world", the Petropavlovsk houses of Russians in 1807 were thus: ... with the exception of the Governor's house, [the town] consists of huts one story high, built of logs and covered with thatch. In a few of them the windows are glazed with talc, but more generally the intestine of the seal ...


6

According to the Wikipedia article linked to in the question, the mutineers on Pitcairn were isolated from outside contact for less than 20 years (1790-1808). There have been countless small societies isolated from outside contact for centuries at a time. A notable example are the Sentinelese in the Andaman islands, who may have been isolated for as long as ...


6

Although the Convention of 1818 and the subsequent 1846 Oregon Treaty might be considered here, these both predate the establishment of a true Canadian Government. Hence I think the following Acts and acts of the post-1867 Government and people of Canada best answer the question: Purchase of Rupert's Land in 1869 from the Hudson's Bay Company and the ...


6

Civilisations not only build buildings, but destroy and reuse them. Many ruins were effectively used as quarries by local people and stones, e.g. bricks from Roman buildings ended up in an early medieval church, then in a late medieval fortress, then in a noble home (see here, only in Hungarian). Wikipedia also mentions how roman bricks were reused. I ...


5

James Forsyth's 'A History of the Peoples of Siberia' suggests that settler constructions were similar to those used in Siberia. Before the Russian's arrival (in the early eighteenth century) the local Itelman population lived in large villages. In summer they lived in: ... leaf-covered tent-like shelters standing on platforms raised well above the ...


5

The term "high culture" is a bit subjective. I believe, however, the earliest site as it predates the Neolithic Revolution, is Göbekly Tepe in Turkey: Göbekli Tepe (Wikipedia). EDIT The question changed from "high culture" to "civilization". I would say that writing is a bad metric for civilization. Writing was only invented a couple times and I think ...


5

Many pre-invasion aboriginal cultures managed land by burning. The effects of this were regular fuel reduction, open bush suitable for large game hunting, and the development of desired fire friendly plants. During invasion, in the Sydney basin, guerrilla war existed until 1820, on a low scale. Actions by the owners of the land including burning European ...


5

William "Василий" Tolman was a New Englander born in 1793. According to the book "Тайны камчатских имен", he arrived in Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka in 1813. A story about one of his daughters, long settled in the USA, getting in touch with her brothers was published in several American newspapers in the 1890s. According to this story, her father had been ...


5

Crimea (occupied by Russia from Crimean tatars, with tatars forcibly deported and Russians moved in). Later re-occupied in 2014, with both Ukrainians and Crimean tatars being discriminated against (the leader of Crimean tatars was exiled). Königsberg, which USSR occupied, de-germanized, and turned into Russian-majority Калинингра́д (Latin: Kaliningrad).


4

French Algeria might qualify. Algeria was conquered militarily (in 1830) and maintained under French control against regular rebellions until 1962. Its status within the empire was very different from that of other French colonies, with a tight integration to France itself, while maintaining a sharp distinction between “natives” and “Europeans” (which ...


4

From Encyclopedia on Society and Culture in the Ancient World vol.3 (New York: Facts on File, 2008), pp. 882-893: Roads and Bridges: Introduction The earliest roads in the ancient world consisted of tracks made by game animals and migrating herds. Ancient hunter- gatherers followed these tracks in pursuit of game and used them to travel from one place to ...


3

Since the accepted answer does not mention Mexico, I can add an observation here. The modern nation-state's immediate predecessor was the Viceroyalty of New Spain (and later that of New Galicia). Spanish monarchs' investments in discovery and exploitation were more important for their colonization project than any legislation (but note the issuance of ...


3

How about in 1948 when India invaded Hyderabad and conquered it? Any Indians who since moved to the area are also occupying settlers.


2

One example is the Russian population in Kazakhstan. (The USSR transferred large populations around, so this is probably not the only example.) Settlement started in the 19th century, but increased in the 20th century. According to Wikipedia, by 1917, 30% of the population was Russian. Many more Russians arrived in the years 1953-1965,during the so-...


2

I would start with a brief explanation on how I'd classify township development in the Middle Ages. I don't expect this to be exhaustive, but rather illustrative of the few lines of development that I can note where cultural reasons might cause some variance from another plan. Please note this is not 'academic' per se, but rather some of the differences I ...


2

If a city was able to hold markets, settlements often grew around a central market square (replace with Suq for Islamic cities). In many european cities, this (former) market square, often in combination with a representative religious building to show the prosperity of the city, is still the center of the city. Some factors that differentiated a city from a ...


1

This will help you find your answer. The first expeditions using the Oregon Trail were in 1839-1841 and in 1846 the route became passable for wagons all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon. After about 1865 the Oregon and California trails got shorter and shorter as the Union Pacific railroad went west and the California based Central Pacific ...


1

It happened in different countries and it was different, of course. In the Czech Republic there were four stages of gaining the former German estates. At start practically anyone could move in and claim a house or a farm, often throwing off or killing the previous owners. In more lucrative places that way was stopped by bureaucracy almost at once. On the ...


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