23

"The most significant fact is that it will not fall from inside pressure. Only outside, foreign, hostile intervention can destroy it." In fact, some historians have argued the exact opposite: the Soviet Union only lasted as long as it did because the Kremlin held up a foreign enemy to distract from internal pressures. Without a boogeyman to act as a ...


15

The First World War and the Soviet Union happened. War time hysteria made labour groups and socialists, who were largely against the war, a target of vigilante attacks and political repression. To make matters worse, amid the political suppression internal divisions of the socialist movement spilled into the open. Encouraged by the revolutionary success in ...


13

This may be referring to The Magyar Struggle, from Neue Rheinische Zeitung No. 194, January 13, 1849 (emphasis mine): There is no country in Europe which does not have in some corner or other one or several ruined fragments of peoples, the remnant of a former population that was suppressed and held in bondage by the nation which later became the ...


13

It varied from country to country. Deep inside the Soviet Union they could not watch Western TV and the only access was shortwave broadcasts. You could easily listen short-wave broadcasts in European languages. There were special broadcasts in Russian (Voice of America, Free Europe, German wave, BBC and few others). Very many people actually listened these ...


9

People in the German Democratic Republic could and did receive TV from the Federal Republic of Germany. Terrestrial reception of TV was limited in some parts of the GDR, notably the Dresden area. In the last years of the GDR there were even cases where Westfernsehen (western television) was provided by local cable providers. Obviously those were the regular ...


9

"1960 through 1980" is a very interesting choice of time periods. I suspect the claimed increase in life expectancy at birth during that period is true, but it's also misleading. 1960 was the worst part of the Great Chinese Famine, where somewhere between 15 million and 45 million people died; famines tend to be hardest on the very young. 1980, on the ...


7

I'm having trouble locating it in the 1839 L'Organisation du travail. The earliest mention I've been able to find is from Louis Blanc 1851 brochure Plus de Girondins on page 92: De chacun selon ses facultés, à chacun selon ses besoins This exact phrasing is asserted as being the original one by French Wikipedia article. A less-trusted, secondary source ...


6

In Polish there are two words which can be translated to the same English "real socialism". The first, most commonly known, is "socrealizm", which in fact is "socialist realism", a trend in art (whatever "art" means). The second (the one you ask about) is "socjalizm realny". The Polish Wikipedia says the term was introduced in the USSR in 1970s. by ...


5

According to this Wikipedia page on the Revolution of 1905 (Bloody Sunday), socialism became important politically in Russia shortly after the accession of Tsar Alexander II in the 1860's and 1870's. A few reasons are offered: Agricultural policy. The Tsar ended serfdom making a class of tax-paying peasants. The taxes were too high and the amount of land ...


5

At a very high level economic systems can be classified into 4 groups by two criteria: public or private ownership, and central or decentralized control. Capitalism as commonly practiced in English-speaking democracies is typically private ownership with decentralized control. Capitalism as typically practiced in European democracies has private ownership ...


4

It wasn't that they were against private property because they thought it was sinful, but rather that they thought it was sinful because they were against it*. To understand this, its probably best to start by talking about common land and enclosures. Under traditional English Common Law, tenants had certain usage rights on common land, even though ...


3

This is part of the movie "The Soviet story", title is "Marks and Engels about Serbs". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZS4xOYFHMGw According to this movie the answer to question is yes, Engels did call for the extermination of Basques and Serbs.


3

I think no one mentioned: In western Europe TV channels were in PAL system, while Eastern Europe mostly adopted a version of SECAM. There were differences in the audio system, too. From late 80s, satellite programs also became available in Eastern Europe. All you needed a satellite antenna, and you could watch MTV Europe, sky channel, etc, but years before ...


3

The official story on wikipedia and a few other places appears to be that they did not meet in 1917, but were rather married in 1917. The story I seem to find about their meeting was that it was at the home of a friend (Samuel Bonchek's) in New York in 1915. I did also find a bit about meeting at a Trotsky lecture too, but it took some searching. That work ...


3

It is. In Soviet history there are multiple instances of badly implemented policies causing resistance from population, which sometimes resulted in government issuing statements in the spirit of "we didn't really mean to do this, it's all foreign spies'/overzealous bureaucrats'/ trotskyists' fault." In this case, global economy crisis forced Soviet ...


3

USSR/Russian Empire fell because its government could no long contain the centrifugal forces that are present in any heterogeneous empire. The colonies (called in the USSR for propaganda reasons "republics" who even had a nominal right to secede) always wanted out (the more recent additions were more eager to separate, the more ancient less), and were held ...


3

Here is a possible explanation; you can find supporting details here: Most of the materials are in the form of translated memoirs of Bismarck and Wilhelm II. While, obviously, biased, the two agree on principal facts. From the editorial comments: … Clearly, the Anti-Socialist Laws of 1878 had failed to curb the growth of militant labor organizations. ...


2

The Congress seems to have been held over 5 days. Sessions on the first two days were held at Allegheny City's Turner Hall, after which they moved to Brookman's Hall on Fifth Avenue in Pittsburgh. The report on page 5 of the Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette of 13 October 1883 states the following: The program as laid down now, provides for a session of five ...


2

Actually, growth in life expectancy in China looks even better if you start from the end of the Chinese revolution (say, 1950). A nice paper on this with charts of provincial-level morality (infant and under-5) is An exploration of China's mortality decline under Mao: A provincial analysis, 1950–80, (K. Babiarz, et. al., Popul Stud (Camb). 2015 Mar; 69(1): ...


1

The Soviet Union was split apart by "centrifugal" forces because "socialism," the glue mentioned in the Bryant thesis that held it together, was too weak. Perhaps more to the point, the revolutionary fervor and "class consciousness" reported by Bryant in the early days of the Revolution that motivated it had mostly disappeared by Gorbachev's time. Put ...


1

When the Baltic states started to break out of the Soviet union it first started in Estonia because they could watch Finnish TV and Finnish and Estonian is linguistic close enough to be understandable.


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