51

It was more of a back-and-forth. You can build a narrative of one side out-pacing the other if you cherry-pick firsts, but their capabilities were very close. The timeline of first achievements is interleaved. Firsts grab headlines and demonstrate national priorities, but they don't show capability well. The other side would often accomplish something ...


40

The reason is that there are two different concepts that are named "communism". One is the final stage in the Marxist(-Leninist?) development model (after archaic/primitive classless societies, slave-holder societies, feudal societies, capitalistic societies and socialist societies) It is marked by (again!) a classless society, a total worker's ...


37

Corporations and plants were divided between republics according to their geographical location. Under Soviet Union they were in some sense "controlled by Moscow government" but not directly. Republics also had their governments and control organs. Each republic had its own supreme control organ called (republican) Gosplan, and ministries for ...


33

The policies very much varied with time. Even more they differed between scientific institutions in USSR. First of all, there was always scientific exchange through publications. Until the middle of 1930s Soviets could publish papers in Soviet journals in foreign languages. Later this was prohibited and publication abroad strongly discouraged. But since ...


28

The NYT article is entirely based on the book "History of the Second World War" by B.H. Liddell Hart, 1971. I checked the book. Here is the complete citation: Nevertheless, the extent to which the Germans still held firm in face of such odds was evidence — even before two years’ prolongation of the war confirmed it — that the Russian forces were ...


25

"How" and "why" are two very different questions. Whereas the former can be answered formally, it is difficult to say "why" this happened other than "by historical accident". We'd need to delve into the history of each republic separately. For some republics, the status changed both ways. For example, Karelia started ...


23

It is good to know that by Lenin's stance USSR was not in fact a socialist state. Their aim was socialism and eventually communism (in modern parlance people think of socialism and communism, usually communism is just though of a subcategory of socialist views. In fact Marx himself used communism and socialism interchangeably as an economic mode), but at ...


18

I think the premise of the question - that the US ought to have a technological superiority over the USSR, as it did in other areas - is quite sensible here, so I will address the Soviet side of the story. for some context, Soviet Russia happened to have it own vast talent in STEM (as witnessed e. g. by Nobel prizes to Tamm-Frank-Cherenkov and Landau), and ...


17

Interpretations are called for here — and these are necessarily opinionated to a degree. From a recent Polish perspective, it might seem rather simple – and one-sided: There are strong indications that Beijing's position, which opposed armed intervention, had a significant influence on the Kremlin. This was by no means out of warm attitudes towards Gomułka ...


16

Various reasons, from demographics to communist system First we need to start with the period before WW1. Russian Empire was mostly rural and agricultural. According to census from 1897, 77.5% of population were peasants, and this does not include Cossacks who were also rural population but with different status. This corresponds well with the low literacy ...


13

Of course it was widely known. In Lenin's case, in 1924 they even renamed his native city Ulyanovsk. For instance, the History of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks): Short Course, which was published since 1938 and until Stalin's death in millions of copies, for instance, contains a passage referring to Lenin as "Ulyanov." As for Stalin, ...


13

It depends a lot on timing, but I can make some general comments. (I got my PhD in theoretical chemistry in 1976, so I've been following this to some extent since the late 60s.) First, there is a huge, sharp, big distinction between military research and everything else. Most military stuff is classified and both sides tried their best to keep that from ...


13

No Delay to BARBAROSSA -- But Significant Implications Firstly, as a teaser, it is worth pointing out that Hitler himself did quite explicitly blame Mussolini's failures in Africa and the Balkans for undermining his invasion of the USSR, in his famous recorded conversation with Marshal Mannerheim of Finland in May 1942. He made mention of the permanent loss ...


13

Deceptive spring of 1943 The general situation on the Eastern front in late February, early March of 1943 was this: the German summer offensive Fall Blau have failed, and the Germans did not capture desperately needed oil. The Soviets have counter-attacked with Operation Uranus and later with Operation Little Saturn, destroying the German Sixth Army in the ...


11

Your question is based on a misconception, which is that there was any sort of "space race" before the Soviets launched Sputnik. The US had some fairly low budget research programs, such as Project Vanguard: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Vanguard Unlike the Soviet programs, they were regarded as purely scientific*, and so did not use ICBMs ...


11

Gomel operation was part of the cleaning after Smolensk battle. von Bock's armies defended themselves in the center and attacked with limited forces on the flanks. In the south, Guderian won the battles near Gomel and Krichev... During those days Guderian emancipated himself from von Kluge (commander of IV army), so he had more freedom (II Panzer group was ...


10

They did, but the amounts of stuff they were able to deliver was not enough. Firstly: air superiority. Soviets didn't have that in the first part of the war. But they tried to supply nonetheless, at night for example. Secondly: sufficient number of suitable transport planes as well as transport containers to supply the troops. They lacked specialized ...


10

I am from a former soviet country, and it is important that these ideas were somewhat new and there are some inconsistencies in the terminologies until later when they were defined more properly. Many took the word social and commune and tried to make a government definition run by social/communes. - Even Karl Marks used the words interchangeably. So the ...


10

It didn't influence Operation Barbarossa significantly. What stopped the German advance? The tenacious defence of the Red Army. When the Germans kicked in the door, the house didn't come down crashing as they expected. Among other factors, the Rasputisa, or the muddy season. That is actually not one, but two seasons: The autumn rains, when roads become ...


9

Sorry, this question has been here a while... But seems it still awaiting an answer Gastev researches and work were not the reason of his persecution. You actually listed the major reason in your question, by the way. There is a common (but mistaken) notion that revolutionary movements that overthrew royal dynasty was something solid. It was not. ...


9

It’s Michail Georgadze, secretary of the Supreme Soviet, who is mostly known just for signing all the state award orders during the late Brezhnev's period. Here is an annotated copy of your image from a Russian state photography archive: https://photo.rgakfd.ru/photo/129046 (mirror: https://photo.rgakfd.ru.office.kaisa.ru/photo/129046)


9

Op's comparison of value is a red herring. Cost of living was dramatically lower in the Soviet Union than in the U.S., even at the time, so raw exchange rate creates a completely meaningless value comparison. Only for international purchases outside the Soviet Block would it have any meaning. It's important to realize that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, ...


9

You are confusing the dates and two separate German-Soviet negotiations. The German-Soviet "Non-aggression pact" (Also called the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact) was signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939. This pact had a secret protocol, dividing the "spheres of influence". The result was a partition of Poland, and Soviet conquests of the Baltic ...


8

It did so, but only initially. Over the long term, it fell behind in most areas, and once the USA was first on the Moon the space race was over with the USA the victor. Rewind back to the beginning of the 1950s. The Cold War had just started, both the USA and USSR had lots of nukes, but the USA had a massive advantage because its bases in Europe allowed its ...


8

The decision to execute A.K.Gastev came from the very top. Quoting from the article "Central Institute of Labour" from the materials of the International Memorial, aka Мемориал, Согласно исследованию А. Ткаченко-Гастева, правнука А. К. Гастева, решение о казни основателя ЦИТа связано с постановлением Политбюро от 8 апреля 1939 года расстрелять 198 ...


8

I would suggest studying Krivosheyev's work for the Soviet losses and Overmans for the German ones. Losses comparison needs to be done with care, as there are many nuances, as such: like counting casualties of the same type (only killed or wounded killed an missing, etc.) on both sides, counting all the allies for Germans, adding up Soviet soldiers who ...


8

It wasn't much of a war, so analyzing the performance is difficult When the Red Army had attacked Poland from the east on the 17th September 1939, it had used 465,000 troops and 485 tanks. Against them, there were 12,000 border defense troops and, a bit more to the west 200,000 mostly poorly armed conscripts, that were planned to be used to patch the loses ...


8

In case you are interested in primary sources, here is one, from "Alexander N. Yakovlev's Archives", here. Документ № 172. "Беседа председателя Совнаркома, наркома иностранных дел СССР В.М. Молотова с рейхсканцлером Германии А. Гитлером в Берлине." 12.11.1940. ... Гитлер отвечает, что тройственный пакт предусматривает руководящую роль в ...


8

About peace offers in general The thing about peace offers is simple, and do not rely on Hitler's craziness, but on the principles of Hitler and the Nazi movement: According to them (it is explained in Mein Kampf for example), the ultimate goal was not to conquer the whole world, or the United Kingdom nor the USA. It was to submit and/or destroy "...


7

Surprisingly, the process of return (re-evacuation) is not that well studied. I could find a couple of dissertations (mostly focussed on people migration than industries per se, but they are closely linked), all in Russian. My brief take is this: There was a small wave of re-evacuation from as early as December 1941, right after the Battle of Moscow, ...


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