Questions tagged [spain]

Spain is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered by Portugal to the west, and France to the north.

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How did Incas chroniclers learn to draw?

I came across the magnificent work of an Inca chronicler named Waman Puma de Ayala -- or Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala -- and I wondered: how did he learn to draw his codex? Resources for viewing his ...
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Where can I read Andrés Segovía's original autobiographical manuscript?

I'm reading an autobiography of the celebrated guitarist, Andrés Segovía (worldcat). The book is listed in some places (such as Amazon) as "English/Spanish edition", but the text is only ...
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What was the expected retirement age for men in Spain in 1936?

I am trying to find out what the expected age of retirement was for men in Spain in 1936. I tried searching the Internet but the results I found were for recent years and not time past.
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Was there the concept of paternity leave in Spain in 1913?

I have tried to google for info but can’t find any. As the question says, I am trying to find out if there was the concept of paternity leave in Spain during 1913 and, if so, how long for?
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Comparison of Ferdinand and Isabella's importance with other royal couples?

Ferdinand and Isabella ruled Aragon and Castile jointly from 1474 to 1504, a thirty-year period during which the modern country of Spain was born, ships they commissioned discovered and explored the ...
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What fueled the street lights in 13th-century Cordoba?

Córdoba, Spain is often said to have had street lights in its Muslim period, which ended in 1236. How did those street lights work? In Lawrence of Arabia, Prince Faisal was dramatized as having said ...
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When did Spain first come to exist as a country called Spain (Espana)?

Inspired by the question: What would the Wikipedia page for Spain have said in 1490?. In 1490, what we currently refer to as Spain was a number of kingdoms: Castilla, Aragón and Navarra. The Wikipedia ...
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Did military politically participate and intervene in the Second Spanish Republic? [closed]

I'm currently studying Spanish Civil War. It seems that it was a tradition, that the military had power to intervene politics in Spain, at least before the establishment of Second Spanish Republic. ...
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Did Franco ever refer to his regime as Fascist?

Italy certainly started out using the term, which is derived from Senatorial regalia. Hitler's Germany can also pretty safely be classified as such, that's the regime most people have in mind when ...
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What was General Franco's disposition towards Islam?

What was General Franco's disposition towards Islam? He did fight against some rebels in Morocco in the 19-teens, gaining valuable military experience. During the Spanish Civil War, many of the ...
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Did the Allies try to "bribe" Franco to join them in World War II?

At a meeting in Hendaye, Spain, Franco presented a list of demands to Hitler that the latter would have to meet in order for Spain to formally join the Axis. This included the right to capture and ...
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Why was the morale of El Cid's troops always so high?

It seems like in every battle El Cid fought his troops had very high morale and fought above and beyond their abilities. Why did El Cid's troops have such high morale? I would understand the high ...
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How did 15th century royals identify themselves in England/Spain?

I'm studying the customs of medieval Europe to gather information for a novel I'm writing and a question has arisen about how the nobles, especially the royal family, identified themselves. Did they ...
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How did encasillado work?

El Turno Pacifico alternated Conservative and Liberal rule of Spain during the Bourbon restoration. There were elections, but the practice of encasillado ensured "the outcome of elections was ...
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Did Spain have a strategic plan for its navy in the Spanish–American War?

Admiral Cervera y Topete is cited in many places as having thought that the Spanish couldn't defeat the Americans in war due to the dilapidated state of the Spanish Navy. The position of the Spanish ...
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How did philosophical and scientific knowledge in Christian Europe in 1085 compare to the body of knowledge contained in the library of Toledo?

In 1085, Moorish Toledo was conquered by Alfonso VI. According to prof. Robert Sapolsky (he is a primatologist and neurobiologist, but usually all information he gives is very reliable), at the time ...
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Why did the Spanish government award a decoration to Chiang Kai-Shek?

In 1936 the republican government granted Chiang the Order of Isabella the Catholic.1 Why did they do that? The Wikipedia article on Chiang is where I got this from.
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Is there basis in saying Venezuela was Aragonese?

So... This sounds like a silly question even to me, but this is the background. In the recent TV show, Bolivar, there is an Inspector of Weights and Measures for Caracas who comes in to weigh a ...
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Did the "loss" of the American territories in the first third of the 19th century have any impact on Spanish intellectual discourse?

The defeat in the war against the USA in 1898 and the subsequent loss of Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines had an enormous, long-term impact on Spanish intellectuals (Generation of 98). However, ...
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Why was Saturnino Martín Cerezo honored by the Spanish government?

Saturnino Martín Cerezo (page not available in English) a lieutenant in the Spanish army, was involved in the famous Siege of Baler, in which a small contingent of Spanish soldiers held out against ...
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What was Pope Innocent VIII's reaction to the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews in 1492?

What was the reaction of the Pope of the Catholic Church to the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews of Spain on March 31, 1492? Did Pope Innocent VIII (d. July 25, 1492) condemn publicly Spain's decree? ...
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Until when did Castile consider all Basques to be noble?

According to J. I. Israel's Race, Class, and Politics in Colonial Mexico: 1610-1670 (pp. 112-113), Basques in the Spanish empire had a special universal claim to nobility: Perhaps the most ...
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What is this consistent symbol in the Spanish coat of arms? [closed]

I have been reading Spanish history today, and have noticed a very distinct commonality in the flags and coat of arms for various periods, but I haven't been able to find precise explanations of the ...
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Were Jews cut off from the Babylonian Geonim?

This is the view that I'm familiar with about the decline of the Geonim: The Mesopotamian Gaon reached the height of its prestige in the 10th century- with Saadia Gaon (d. 945), but the ...
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Are these two images of Juan Diez Porlier or Francisco Espoz y Mina?

This sketch and this miniature clearly derived from it occur on the web in several places as both an image of Francisco Espoz y Mina and Juan Diaz Porlier. Both were well known and recognized ...
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Is still Spain legally the Spanish State (apart from the Kingdom of Spain)? [closed]

To the extent of my knowledge, the Spanish transition to democracy was not at all revolutionary, but a sequence of actions overseen (at least partially) by/from the State. After the Spanish Bourbon ...
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Why did Al-Andalus become cosmopolitan?

I have been watching some BBC documentaries on the history of Spain recently. 'Blood and Gold: The Making of Spain with Simon Sebag Montefiore', and 'The Art of Spain' (Episode 1: The Moorish South). ...
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Did Charles IV of Spain legally change Spanish succession law in 1789?

In 1713, Salic law was introduced to Spain. In 1830, Ferdinand VII who did not have any sons declared that his daughter Isabella was the next in line, instead of his brother Carlos. Carlos and his ...
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Why does a Star of David appear at a rally with Francisco Franco?

In this web page, a photo from a repertory of photos from the Spanish Civil War, at the website of the archive of Italian Istituto Luce, shows a rally with Francisco Franco within a theatre. From the ...
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Why didn't Spain and Portugal become industrial powerhouses in the 20th century?

Although Spain experienced a gruesome civil war, neither Spain nor Portugal participated in either the first or the second world wars. Despite their losses of millions of people, widespread ...
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Is (or was) there a version of the Maltese Cross with the right arrowhead missing? Does it have a name?

I'm trying to answer a question (link in Spanish) in the Spanish language site about a funny definition a user found in the Royal Spanish Academy's dictionary. It follows: martillo m. Cruz ...
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Perceptions and relationships of 14-15th century Spaniards / Romani / Moors

What perceptions of the Romani people were held by the Moors who occupied Granada around the time of the Reconquista? What were the relationships like between the Moors, Romani and the Sephardic Jews ...
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What is the basis of the Spanish claim to Gibraltar?

I looked at resources in English, particularly here. Whilst I expected some bias, it seemed strange that it was not able to identify anything in the Spanish argument that looked like a case to answer. ...
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What would the Wikipedia page for Spain have said in 1490?

I'm trying to understand the Spanish empire prior to the discovery of America - I'm not looking for a book length answer, just a broad summary like what would have been on a Wikipedia page at that ...
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Why isn't there a single trace of Germanic influence in Iberian Languages?

In this question, I would like to make a comparison between two settlements that occurred in the Early Middle Ages in Europe, that seem to be very similar, however they had very distinct outcomes ...
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Did any Moors accompany Hernando de Soto in his exploration of Mississippi?

I was reading about Hernando de Soto and saw William Powell's painting (Relevant bit cropped and added below): The odd thing (Marked with a red arrow) is the man who looks Moorish and is dressed in ...
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What is the approximate value of a Spanish ducat in 1557?

In the text of "A narrative of the expedition of Hernando de Soto into Florida published at Evora in 1557" the anonymous author states that de Soto "... gathered a hundred and four score thousand ...
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What's this 1607 Hispania coin?

What's this coin called? i found it on a shipwreck website.
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What was the Catholic Church trying to do in Spain in the 1930s?

Right now I'm trying to learn about Spain's transition to democracy in the 20th century. To start, I'm looking at the civil war that took place in the '30s. And the question I'm trying to answer is: ...
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Why, and how, was the Catholic Church in Spain reactionary in the early 20th century? [closed]

Right now I'm trying to learn about Spain's transition to democracy in the 20th century. To start, I'm looking at the civil war that took place in the '30s. And the question I'm trying to answer is: ...
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What kind of knife could this be?

I recently found this knife/dagger, have no clue what type it is and what it was used for, there is a thumb hole I suspect on the spine as well as it looks to be “IMT” or “IMI” logo stamped on the ...
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Do medieval historic references to "Semites" refer to Jews or to speakers of Semitic in general?

In medieval times, we often read of Semitic pogroms and expulsions etc., for example in Spain, or after the Black Death. Do the original sources refer specifically to "Semites" or to "Jews"? And if ...
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Why did General Dupont surrender in the Battle of Bailén?

General Dupont's had, from my inexpert view, quite a superior army when he fought the Spanish forces at the Battle of Bailén. This battle was in fact the first defeat in open field of the Napoleonic ...
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Who owned the ship Ensayo, and what were they doing near Baja California in 1842?

According to Plummer's The Shogun's Reluctant Ambassadors, in 1842, sea drifters from the Eijū-maru were picked up and by the Ensayo, a "Spanish pirate ship" with a Philippine crew. It was "carrying ...
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Could the nukes involved in the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash have detonated?

According to Wikipedia on the 1966 Palomares B-52 Crash: The first weapon to be discovered was found nearly intact. However, the conventional explosives from the other two bombs that fell on land ...
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Did the USA government aided Spanish Dictator Franco? [closed]

Is it historically admitted that the USA aided Spanish dictator Franco in exchange for military bases and logistic support? I'm looking for historians and authors against or in favour of these thesis....
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Did Freemasons motivate Spain's expulsion of Jesuits?

Carlos III of Spain was a Catholic, but an anticlerical one. After riots in Madrid, he expelled the Society of Jesus (and was followed in this by Pope Clement XIV). The same year, 1767, the first ...
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Does any copy exist of the Papal bull which authorized the Spanish Inquisition?

I have been trying, without success, to find an exemplification or any lesser copy of the Papal bull (issued by Pope Sixtus IV on November 1, 1478) known as Exigit Sinceras Devotionis Affectus (...
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How long did it take to get news of the sighting of the Spanish Armada from Land’s End to London?

When the Armada was sighted, fire beacons carried the warning from Land’s End (western tip of Cornwall) to the rest of the country (this link has some details on how the system worked). "Armada ...
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How could the USS Maine explosion have been investigated?

After the explosion of the USS Maine in 1898, was it possible for the United States to ask Spain if their mine had sunk the USN Battleship?