51

According to Trends in U.S. Corrections (pdf), the increase in the prison and jail populations relates primarily to Changes in sentencing law and policy, not changes in crime rates, The main increases have been for drug offenses and violent crimes, the latter constituting the largest group in state prisons. These increases have come about primarily (but ...


44

The actual year would be in prehistory, when the human population were more concentrated. In terms of recorded history, the initial outbreak of the Plague of Justinian in 541 had an estimated death toll of 25 million. Most estimates of world population gives about ~200 million for the 6th century. The plague thus killed roughly 10-13% of the global ...


39

Equally short as well as probably controversial answer: the War on Drugs, institutionalised racism, an increasingly intoxicating political climate rife with taboos based on moral panic, politics of fear, a general conservative backlash, as well as the privatisation of prisons can account for these numbers. Distilling all these effects piling up onto another ...


35

For the vast majority of Germans, religious and non-religious alike, religion matters little in daily life. In some families, the babies are baptised, marriages have both civil and religious ceremonies, and one goes to the service on Christmas and perhaps on Easter. Yet in a survey or opinion poll, these people might report themselves as Christian. This kind ...


30

70,000 BC Analysis of the human genome has suggested that there was a choke-point in human history where the number of humans was drastically reduced. Some believe that this was due to a single volcanic eruption occurring 70,000 years ago give or take. According to this theory human population may have been reduced to just a few thousand breeding pairs. ...


27

A bit of quick research tells me the worst in absolute terms almost has to be 1918. There was a worldwide influenza epidemic that killed about 40 million people that year. That's the single biggest recorded death toll for a global pandemic in a single year in human history1. There also happened to be one of the bloodiest wars in human history (in terms of ...


27

80% does not seem to be way off compared with other industrial countries like Sweden (85%), Denmark (80%), Norway (72%), Czech Republic (61%), Finland (60%)...


25

The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations has the following citation for that quote: (apologies for the limited quality of the scan. I'm using my hand-held scanner.) As their source, they cite The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton by By Karl Pearson (p415): Interestingly, unless he is quoting from a source that he does not cite (such as a letter from ...


20

German here. You see here a chart of the predominant confessions in Germany: Wikimedia Commons, Martin Sander, CC BY-SA 3.0, 2013-06-23 As you see, approximately one third is Roman-Catholic (yellow), one third is Lutheran (violet, this is not the same church like in the USA despite having the same roots!) and the former German Democratic Republic ...


15

There is an emerging trans-disciplinary field called cliodynamics which studies these ideas. There's an open access journal, Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution, a lab in England, and an institute in New Mexico. Cliometrics is somewhat related: it applies the ideas of economics to the study of history. It's been around ...


14

Found him. He was Justus Friedrich Carl Hecker (1795 – 1850), doctor and professor at the Frederick William University in Berlin. His essay on the plague was "Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert: Nach den Quellen für Ärzte und gebildete Nichtärzte bearbeitet." According to the Wikipedia he is the founder of the study of the history of disease. Note ...


11

This is part of the long narrative of the USA's poor race relations. The last of the legal segregation barriers came down in the early 70's with Fair Housing act and Swann vs. Charolette. This resulted in two big changes. The first was the completion of white flight, where white families who could afford cars left the cities to live together in the ...


10

The White Army was never a unified force but rather a number of armies of varying sizes which rarely co-ordinated their efforts. David Bullock, in The Russian Civil War 1918-22 states Overall, the White armies were middle class in orientation but were amazingly heterogeneous. Their ranks contained the full spectrum of former Russian society, from ...


8

A factor (but not the leading factor) was the deinstitutionalization of mentally ill people. As they were discharged into a society that did not know what to do with them, some became violent and committed crimes and ended up in prison. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0887403414547043?journalCode=cjpa A second factor is increased illegal ...


8

An addendum to all the answers given so far: None of the statistics given and discussed are a reliable indicator for what the question asked An important reminder for all statistics from Germany on that topic: Religious affiliation: The information does not refer to religious conviction, but to legal affiliation to a church, religious or philosophical ...


7

This was part of the focus of Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century. He prefers to measure income inequality by looking at the share of the top decile/percentile/0.1% in the national income. In general, the story is that inequality decreased sharply throughout the Great Depression and WWII, and continued on a downward trend until the late 1970s-1980s....


6

The main factor is certainly the fact that Dresden was in the former German Democratic Republic. Like other West European countries, Germany in general is not extremely religious but the influence and attachment to Christianity is still more visible in the west (and possibly somewhat stronger in Germany than in, say, France or the UK). East Germany by ...


5

It seems that the confusion in this case stems from a bad edit to the Wikipedia page on 18 June 2015 where the name of the newspaper that conducted the first poll was changed from the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian to the Aru Pennsylvanian. However, it seems that the Library of Congress has no record of any newspaper titled the Aru Pennsylvanian, only The ...


5

tl;dr There is currently no consensus about 'the one cause', or even one commonly accepted explanation. This is very complicated. Only several aspects of a multitude of influence factors are discussed in an ongoing debate about the demographic transitions. Answers to this question that claim to have found the solution are usually totally inadequate for ...


5

The statistical illustration published by the BBC of Hatton's data is misleading, The Economist is different: The original paper is Timothy J. Hatton: "How have Europeans grown so tall?", Oxford Economic Papers, Volume 66, Issue 2, 1 April 2014, Pages 349–372. Increases in human stature are a key indicator of improvements in the average health of ...


5

You may find the field of "big history" relevant to your interests. David Christian's book Maps of Time is an excellent introduction. This work isn't as quantitatively oriented as what you are looking for, but you may still find it useful. (As an aside, I can't resist echoing the warning tweeted by Neil DeGrass Tyson: "In science, when human behavior enters ...


5

Your hypothesis seems to be true if you look at the link liftarn provided: Top 10 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists (Greeley/Jagodzinski, 1991) East Germany 88.20% Slovenia 29.80 Russia 27.30 Israel 25.60 Netherlands 24.10 Hungary 23.30 Norway 14.90 Britain 14.00 West Germany 12.10 New Zealand 11....


5

These numbers were not measured like "actual calories consumed". But the numbers cited are quite easily "calculated" – for the cities. From the start of the war for Germany in 1939 there were Lebensmittelmarken/Lebensmittelkarten (something like "ration stamps") given out to avoid the inequality and other problems associated with getting enough food and ...


4

Land ownership has historically been hereditary and Richard Horsely writes in his book, Covenant Economics, that it was an "inalienable right" for a person to live on and work his father's land. He also indicates that the land actually belonged to the community, that the family were just tenants and caretakers of the land. They lived in houses on the land ...


4

Summary Probably not - and whatever you can find or generate yourself will probably suffer from Selection Bias. Detail Reliable statistics require comprehensive data collection. You can probably find some data in DP camps archives - if they are publicly available. However, not every survivor went through a DP camp, and some went through several. Another ...


4

Many states passed three strikes and you're out laws where the third felony resulted in an automatic 25 year sentence or something close to that. Many states also passed longer mandatory minimum sentences for many crimes.


3

While many answers did already point out that there are many ways to measure the degree of "atheism", I'd like to make it explicit that the 41% in Russia and the 80% are most likely different measures. While the German numbers are likely from church tax records, there is no church tax in Russia, so these numbers likely measure self-determined survey answers.


3

The size of the British Army varied a lot through the 63 years of the Victorian era. The Wikipedia article on the British Army includes a table of personnel figures from 1710 to 2015. If we look at the section for 1801 - 1921, which includes the Victorian period, we can see that the army establishment was at its lowest at the beginning of Victoria's reign, ...


3

That microform collection appears to be published by Brill. Their website says that the searchable CD-ROM index is available for free, and they also have a 60-page guide in PDF format free for download. The collection itself is extremely expensive, which explains why only a handful of top research libraries in the US and Europe seem to have it in their ...


2

Question: Why was there a surge in the US incarceration rate during the 1990s? Murder rates, and violent crimes increased in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Starting in 1987, the homicide rate in the US was increasing by 5% each year, peaking in 1991 with 9.8 deaths per every 100,000 people. BBC From 1989 - 1992 the murder rate in the United ...


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