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20

According to historian A. Roger Ekirch's At Day's Close, peoples in pre-industrial societies actually went to bed as soon at it was too dark to work, and slept (and still do sleep in such areas today) in two fourish-hour phases, interrupted by a short period of activity. He found numerous references to this in literature, from Medieval literature to Homer. ...


11

There are many theories & interpretations, but relatively little evidence to support most of them. Of course, there are no written sources from the Ubaid period to support them. You are absolutely right that there hasn't been a great deal of published material on the subject. However, a good, and relatively recent (2006), paper on the subject is A ...


11

SUMERIAN CULTURE IN MESOPOTAMIA: It is important to note that the Sumerian people did not migrate to Mesopotamia until after about 3250 BC near the end of the Uruk Period. … After about 3250 BC, another people migrated from its homeland, located probably northeast of Mesopotamia, and began to intermarry with the native population. The newcomers, who ...


10

Some, though not all, of the Sumerian numbers are known from syllabic spellings. There is an overview here


9

Every 1000 years or so you can expect a large "1000-year-flood" near large rivers. So it shouldn't shock anybody if the first few millenia of Sumer's history might have included one or two such big flood events. It is a floodplain, after all. Periodic floods were what make agriculture productive enough to create their culture there in the first place. There ...


7

Sumerian word for incense is na-IZI (qutrēnu = incense) is to be read na-de3. According to the book Kitchen Witchery: A Compendium of Oils, Unguents, Incense, Tinctures. By Marilyn F. Daniel (Pg- #53) and enenuru.proboards, it's consists of: 3 parts Cedar 2 parts Juniper 2 parts Cypress 2 parts Tamarisk This incense was burned during magical rites, or ...


5

It appears the consensus is indicating multiple colors. In Mesopotamia the seven stages of a ziggurat were each painted a different color, the colors being emblematic of the seven planets Handcock Mesopotamian Archaeology p 273 The Uses of Symbolism in Greek Art ...By Janet M. Macdonald The above quote from a book in 1922, and it appears to be ...


5

According to this syllabary of Sumerian, and just how one wishes to pronounce Bad-Tibira, one possible Sumerian transcription is this: Whether this is also an accurate transcription of "Fortress of the Copper-Smiths" I cannot say.


5

As you know from my answer to your earlier question, the best preserved tablets containing the standard Akkadian version of the Gilgameš Epic were discovered in the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh by Hormuzd Rassam in 1853, and are now held in the British Museum. A number of those tablets are available as high-resolution images from the British Museum ...


5

Sumerian has been a dead language for nearly 4,000 years, and had no known linguistic descendants, predecessors, or relatives. Its printed form was logographic, which means each word was represented by a symbol. So there's no phonological content to be gleaned from their writing either. So we don't know for sure how any of it was pronounced.


4

This isn't the sort of question you find citations for, but the essence of Western Civ. starts with the Greeks. Much of Greek history lies in its interactions with the Persians and other denizens of empires and kingdoms in Asia Minor, the Levant, and Mesopotamia, so going back over the history of these regions is of interest. The Civilizations in Egypt are ...


4

"Western Civilization" is a very loosely defined expression. It can be more or less whatever you want it to mean. Usually, however, when we talk of "Western", we implicitly place ourselves in a modern context, where Western civilization really means "industrialized countries with a large middle-class and partaking to a common set of values which includes ...


4

The use of zero should be a clue that "Ubaid 0" was identified later in the timeline of Ubaid archaeology, and was an attempt to fit an earlier phase into an existing structure. Eridu was first excavated in 1855, 1918, and 1919, then Tell al'Ubaid in 1919; but Tell El'Ouelli wasn't excavated until 1976-1989. The name "Ubaid period" was adopted at a ...


3

I have found full list of proto-cuneiform signs (very large file [93 MB]), with very detailed glyphs together with their meanings sadly meanings seems to be all missing. Though there is no author information. Also as you suggested; A. Falkenstein, Archaische Texte aus Uruk (Archaische Texte aus Uruk 1; Berlin-Leipzig 1936) from Cuneiform Digital ...


3

In addition to such changes, two of his other surviving decrees, first published and translated by Samuel Kramer in 1964, have attracted controversy in recent decades. First, he seems to have abolished the former custom of polyandry in his country, on pain of the woman taking multiple husbands being stoned with rocks upon which her crime is written.[4] ...


2

Try ETCSL Sign names and embedding texts are also shown on this site.


1

A woman can have a child by her husband even if he is "seeing" other women. Society will always know which woman the child came from (and will make inferences about the man). On the other hand, only one man can produce a child with a woman at any given time. If a woman is "married" to two men simultaneously, the paternity of the child will be "clouded" (at ...


1

Ireland. I too am interested in any references to floods, deluges, inundations etc., which may have occurred circa 5,000 years ago,and that is how I arrived at this site. Some years ago,I read an interesting book called; IRELAND-THE GEOMORPHOLOGY OF THE BRITISH ISLES (1978) by G.L.Herries Davies (Professor of Geography at Trinity Dublin) and Nicholas ...


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