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49

Although the whole anti-"rootless cosmopolitan" campaign is now widely accepted as being antisemitic in nature, at the time it was framed as being directed against people who "lack patriotism and mindlessly worship the Western culture" - who, incidentally, were Jewish (at least, an overwhelming majority of them were). Thus, the picture depicts a literary ...


31

Short Answer The identities of France and Britain are indicated by their heads of state, namely President Armand Fallières and King Edward VII respectively. There is also (as Roddy of the Frozen Peas observed in his comment above) a French flag on one of the ships near the French President. Details The image appeared on the cover of the September 22, 1909 ...


25

Yes. A notable example is the Bonnet phrygien or Phrygian cap or the Liberty cap. During the French Revolution it came to signify freedom and the pursuit of liberty,... Marianne, French symbol of liberty and reason, with a phrygian cap. Source: Marianne Républicaine At the time of the revolution, ...l’antiquité romaine est très à la mode, et, quand ...


24

This image seems to be the signature of the editing house, the MacMillan company. You can find other versions of their logo on their wikipedia entry.


22

Sure. The hammer and sickle, representing "worker-peasant alliance" and later adopted by the Soviets as emblem of class struggle, dates from the 19th century. According to a numismatic site, its first appearance was on Chilean currency in 1894:


18

1949 was a bad year to be a communist or nomenklatura. Apart from the Rajk trials of national development line communists in the new soviet-style societies, there was the Leningrad affair and Zhdanovshchina (1946~1957). The most general context was a fear of left social democracy or reformism within Stalinist parties under Soviet hegemony. Yugoslavia was ...


13

It's cuitlatl, a symbol of excrement, sin, perhaps fire. We see plate 57 from the Codex Borgia. It depicts Tlazolteotl goddess of earth and filth, here as a moon goddess and goddess of pulque, together with her consort Patecatl god of healing, fertility, peyote and pulque again, as a moon god. He represents a monkey, she movement. Both are the lords of the ...


13

In Europe and especially in France the events of the Paris Commune and the use of the red flag there set for good the red flag as the symbol of the socialist revolution and not "just" the revolution. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Commune


12

In the War of the Vendée, the Sacred Heart was the symbol of the rebels, which arouse from 1793 to 1800 against the French Revolution. There were poor peasants on both sides of the French Revolution. The Guerre en Vendée saw whole villages almost wiped out by the French Revolutionary Government. Liste de massacres de la guerre de Vendée et de la ...


11

Peasants? A simple leather shoe with strings as opposed to one with buckles. Peasents wore strings, rich people buckled shoes. The Bundschuh movement (German: Bundschuh-Bewegung) refers to a series of localized peasant rebellions in southwestern Germany from 1493 to 1517. They were one of the causes of the German Peasants' War (1524–1526). The ...


11

The furthest back I've gotten so far isn't very far back at all. From a court transcript in 1877 or 1878: Q: Place upon the blackboard the signs that you used in applications for insurance. A: For what? Q: Certain stenographic signs? A: Yes, sir; there was the ordinary tick mark. Q: Go and make them please; show what meant yes and show what ...


10

(There's a pretty complete description of the association between the red flag and revolution on Wikipedia's page on the color red) It can be associated with revolution (at least as far back as the French revolution, before that in Europe it was sometimes associated with monarchy) and communists see themselves as revolutionaries. Red is associated with ...


10

Merriam-Webster dates the first usage of red flag meaning "a warning signal" to 1748, but it does not cite the example. However, the Collins Dictionary Trends of 'red flag' graph lends support to this early usage Still well before railways, the earliest actual example of the use of red for a warning I've found is in this Wikipedia note: 1777 Philip ...


9

Simply by using (or abusing) it. An heraldic eagle (or any other heraldic symbol) on its own is neutral. Remember the 3 powers of advertising: repeat, repeat and repeat. I live in Thailand were the swastika has a very different (and religious) meaning. I've seen a Buddhist temple with a fence decorated with swastika's. To me it's somewhat eerily funny, but ...


8

This cartoon is a part of the campaign in the Soviet media which started on January 28, 1949 with publication in Pravda (central newspaper of the Communist party) which was called "On an anti-party group of theater critics". The slogans of the campaign were "struggle with rootless cosmopositism" and "against cringing before the West". One part of it was "...


8

However, no apparent sign appeared to me to link this type of symbolism directly to nazism (especially since it wasn't known if the eagle was carrying any swastika). Well, the eagle as displayed the way the Nazis displayed it, together with the word "Fatherland" in some gothic font certainly makes it a symbol of the Third Reich. Either that, or the guy is a ...


8

Short Asnwer: In my opinion, it is probable that you saw the Leechkirche on Rittergasse with a Teutonic Knights cross painted on the doors, instead of a garrison church of a hypothetical German army garrison in Graz during Nazi rule. Long answer: Graz in Austria was part of the Duchy of Styria in the Kingdom of Germany in the Holy Roman Empire until 1806, ...


7

Normally it is difficult to provide evidence that something doesn't exist. I can offer this article on another website, Society of Private and Pioneer Numismatics, concerning early coins used in California (emphasis mine): There is some evidence that tokens were used in exchange for labor and goods. On September 3rd, 1846, a visitor to Sutter’s fort, ...


7

Because Cuba wasn't communist at the time. The flag was designed in 1849 and adopted in 1902. The original design purposely copied French and United States elements. The Cuban Revolution that brought the Castros to power didn't happen until 1958. This would have been the time to change the flag, if it were going to get changed. However, they actually got a ...


6

The red flag, which is prevalent on 20th century communist countries, has a long history of being linked to defiance. It was used by the Jacobins during the French Revolution, was adopted by Socialists during the Revolutions of 1848, and became a recognizable symbol of communism during the Paris Commune in 1871.


6

As pointed out by user LangLangC, both the question and the answers should really be from the point of view of educated and/or politically interested parts of Soviet society. Unfortunately I do not speak any Russian, so I can only answer this for educated and/or politically interested parts of German society. However, the Soviet Union did often take notice ...


5

There seem to be at least two sources of the Ottoman crescent, none of them related to Islam. 1) The standard of the Kayihan Khanate, founded by Osman Gazi (Osman I) in western Anatolia. It is said the symbol on the standard goes back to the seal or tamgha of the ancestral Kayi tribe. 2) The crescent and the star of Byzantion (later Constantinople). Here ...


5

These are a reconstruction and indeed to be found in the Codex Borgia family of codices (original plate 59) and are now commonly described as: […] Plate 59: Page 2 of the numerological marriage prognostications, found on page 19. The Codex Borgia also contains images that predict the future, in this case, the probability of success in the marriage. (src) ...


4

I also suspect that there is significance in the mismatched patterns of our vagabond's jacket and pants; ... And possibly the hat and the overstuffed valise, for that matter. What would a Russian in 1949 have understood these symbols to mean? Details of wardrobe and facial features are not the most important clues here. Look at this photo from 1934: The ...


4

It is indeed improbable to see these now, as non-disclosure is the exact thing the European Commission had asked for. Even if Arthur Eisenmenger claims to be the designer. Despite claims by the European politicians to the contrary, the Euro symbol was first designed by a German designer, Luxembourg-based euro-fanatic, Arthur Eisenmenger (b. 1915), who was ...


4

Here is an interesting undergraduate thesis that compares the different ways the eagle was appropriated as a national symbol in US and German contexts. In both cases, the author traces this symbol to Roman times (the aquila). Regarding the specific way the Nazi Party (NSDAP) used the eagle (the Parteiadler): When the partially Germanic Holy Roman Empire ...


4

The top of that column may be quite unrelated to the rest. As we lack more info from the situation and surrounding findings, inferences are also limited for the first two carvings. But those other two need to be rotated. Then we see a bas reielf for a blacksmith or even locksmith: Whether it is from funerary stele or a 'shop sign' seems an open question ...


3

An article about the origin of Viking horned helmets has a paragraph about this. It seems that the use of such horns in German and Scandinavian crests became common in the thirteenth century. While there does not seem to be direct evidence of the origin, it had long been believed that a tradition of wearing horns on helmets came first. Bull- and buffalo-...


3

We were told in school it signified fire or the blood shed by the comrades, but the true story is that red color came from the Second Paris Commune (after which Communism was named), then in turn from the Great French Revolution (which started from the first Paris Commune), and ultimately from the Commune of Rome of 1144. The Commune of Rome of 1144 choose ...


3

The origin story laid out in the wikipedia page seems to be a reinterpretation of an older symbol and its meaning at best, and pure invention at worse. Critical Notes on Graeco-Roman Ostraca, Herbert C. Youtie (1945) makes a passing mention, in footnote 96, of the use of checkmarks in what seems to be 3rd or 4th century papyri written in Greek: ...


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