Yes and no. Uniforms and rank insignia as we understand them didn't exist back then. It was very easy to see who was high(er) in rank, though. Members of the knightly class wore their coat of arms on their shield, clothing, barding and sometimes on top of their helmets.
It was very easy to see important nobles. The problem was what to do with them. The ...
What makes you think that the eastern Roman or "Byzantine" army was helpless against cavalry?
What makes you think that heavy cavalry and heavy infantry would be useless against enemy cavalry forces? What makes you think that the "Byzantine" army didn't also have light cavalry and light infantry, etc., etc.?
Here is a link to an article about "Byzantine" ...
The Middle Ages lasted for about a thousand years in most parts of Europe, from about AD 500 to about AD 1500, depending on the particular definition of the Middle Ages.
And Europe is a very big place, about as large as the United states of America, and so at the beginning of the Middle Ages it had a very diverse set of cultures outside of the former and ...
No. You capture them alive for ransom.
Battles like Crecy are atypical. When you neck that fallen lord you’re losing your handful of silver of the share of your lords ransom of the toff.
Dismounting the Toff yes.
Threatening to kill the Toff yes.
Pissing months of trying to drink yourself to death down the drain with a short knife draw? no.
The bocage country of Normandy, which the British were just entering subsequent to Operation Jupiter, made offensive action much more difficult. Up to July 2 the British forces were operating almost exclusively in bocage-free Nort-East Normandy.
Marked up manually from Maps #55, #63, #64, and #65 of the West Point Military Atlas - WW2 ...
Callwell, Small Wars. Only a few years before your time window. Flying columns in chapter 11.
USMC, Infantry in Battle. Written after your time window, but a retrospective. Googling only got me a PDF with half the text, perhaps you can find it in a library. Chapter 19 or thereabouts.
I think the answer is overlooked - the different objectives and predominant strategies of assailants.
Viking forces relied on swift attack, mobility. That is; their objective/tactic was to arrive quickly (enabled by having better ships), attack forcefully and achieve an objective and leave BEFORE reinforcements could arrive. Their predominant weapons (...
The horse always the horse. The reason Calvary decimated infantry and especially archers was a war horse could weigh 1,200 and 1,400 pounds and can run at speeds up to 55 miles an hour. A rider on such an animal could ride right over massed foot soldiers killing or incapacitating many men, not by act of the rider but just the impact of the horse. You ...