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38 votes
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How did the Bolsheviks fund their government?

This is based on an Estonian radio show, 'Müstiline Venemaa' ('Mystical Russia') by historian David Vseviov, chapters 'The Financing of Bolshevik Activities', which described the pre-1917 financing, ...
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21 votes
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Why did post-Roman rulers abandon tax-paid army?

"abandoned Roman tax-payed army in favor of medieval feudal one, which was far worse." Paying an army with tax money does not confer inherently superior quality. While one could argue ...
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14 votes
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How were taxes collected for traveling merchants in the middle ages?

I will try to answer this question beginning beyond its set time scope by including trade practices that were instituted in the late Roman/early Byzantine period and the Muslim world. In their work &...
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11 votes

How heavily were the British taxing their American colonies?

It is rather difficult to find an exact number for how much colonists paid in taxes This article on PBS Newshour says: the average British citizen who resided in Britain paid 26 shillings per ...
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11 votes

Roman Taxes: how did taxes collected in the provinces get to Rome?

Gaius Gracchus's reforms in 123BC saw the introduction of the practice of Tax Farming were the burden of tax collection was reassigned by the Roman State to private individuals or groups known as ...
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11 votes
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Was there a tax on being fat in Gaul?

I think you're remembering a comment in Strabo's Geography, Book 4, Chapter 4, where he quotes Ephorus saying: Ephorus, in his account, makes Celtica so excessive in its size that he assigns to ...
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10 votes
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Why did the United States under the Articles of Confederation have a hard time getting funding?

Request vs Demand There is a difference between a theoretical right, and the practical ability to exercise that right. In theory, you are correct that the Confederation Congress was empowered to set ...
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10 votes
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Did Soviet Union have the requirement that people submit yearly tax returns?

The answer is no, for the majority of people. Most people in the Soviet Union had only one (legitimate) source of income: their salary. Tax was withheld at source, at a specified rate, and none of ...
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7 votes

How did the Bolsheviks fund their government?

I personally doubt this report's accuracy. I've seen numerous reports, news articles of the time 1918-20 in the American/British press that this just seems another one far from reality (like those in ...
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7 votes
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Are there notes by the Founding Fathers which indicate why DC citizens were denied a vote in Congress?

Such concern likely existed, and there is evidence of some cursory discussion to that effect during the proceedings of the Continental Congress. The rationale for creating a federal district with sole ...
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7 votes

What proportion of US government revenue came from taxes on slaves, between 1790 and 1846?

For its first seven decades the federal government was supported almost entirely by customs revenue, not taxes on slaves. Slavery's most direct connection to taxation occurred at the state/local level ...
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6 votes

Why is the Stamp Act of 1765 known as a "direct tax?"

The direct/indirect distinction is minorly anachronistic. As Bernard Bailyn discusses at length, the colonists denounced the Stamp Act (1765) as an internal tax, claiming that Parliament only had the ...
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6 votes

What is the first example of a Western government passing a sin tax?

The issuance of fines or taxes on luxury goods is part of the general phenomenon known as sumptuary laws. The Wikipedia article gives a good history. Also, note that Roman censors had the power to ...
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5 votes

Were debts owed or outstanding debts factored into the Roman census?

tl;dr Yes, it appears that debts were taken into account by the censors, and that details were provided as part of the statement given by every Roman citizen to the censors. This is an interesting ...
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5 votes

What are some government expenditure reports from the Middle ages?

If the British Isles are within your range, the Pipe Rolls survived in a continuous series from 1155, with some earlier ones also extant. The UK National Archives has information online about how to ...
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5 votes
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How did early America collect taxes?

There actually was no Federal Income Tax until 1861, and none during peacetime until 1894. Due to how Congress' taxation powers were worded, prior to the passage of the 16th Amendment, passing ...
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  • 110k
5 votes
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How did the central government of the United States finance itself under the Articles of Confederation?

The Congress of the Confederation could "ascertain" and "appropriate" money from states or make "requisitions" on the States, as is stated in the Articles of Confederation: The United States in ...
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5 votes

How did Americans' hatred of taxes shape the country up through the Gilded Age?

Today when we talk about "taxes" usually what is meant is Income Taxes. The US did not have much in the way of income taxes during your period; during the Civil War a 3% tax was introduced for ...
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4 votes

What was the actual value of tea destroyed during the Boston Tea Party?

Using Measuring worth and the initial values supplied by @WladimirPalant: The harm to British Interests: In 2011 £14 million using UK average earnings inflation In 2011 £91 million using share of UK ...
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4 votes
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What is the first example of a Western government passing a sin tax?

Not sure they were the first laws primarily motivated by "moral outrage" but the the effects on the poor of cheap, low quality gin certainly was a factor in passing the British Gin Acts of 1736 and ...
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4 votes

What was the average percentage of taxes in Europe during the Middle Ages?

In medieval times (and even in modern times) taxes were highly irregular and varied from place to place. In many instances a "tax" was really just a robbery. For example, in England since Domesday the ...
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4 votes
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Leaders killed or removed for reducing the privileges of the rich

A list question par excellence but I'll allow myself to be tempted nevertheless... Agis IV & Cleomenes III. The Gracchi brothers. Kavadh I. Thomas Sankara.
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3 votes
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What was the inheritance tax rate in the UK during WWI and WWII?

This graph illustrates the top inheritance tax rates since 1900 for four major Western governments: U.K., U.S., France, and Germany. For the U.K. in regards the two world wars it shows the top rate ...
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3 votes
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When were public tariffs and taxes for water supply introduced for the first time?

Specially for you, a remarkable book survives, and there is even an excellent English translation with technical commentaries. And free on the Internet: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/...
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3 votes

What taxes were assessed on people in Alta California?

I'm not a historian and have no expertise on California, but overall it seems that neither of these regimes would have had much capacity to impose taxes in Alta California. In theory, according to a ...
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  • 17.5k
3 votes

When did countries first allow travellers to import duty free alcohol and tobacco

"The world’s first airport duty free shop was opened at Shannon Airport by Dr Brendan O’Regan in 1947 to serve trans-Atlantic airline passengers travelling between North America and Europe. ...
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2 votes
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What was the ancestor of VAT called?

Wikipedia to the rescue (At least possibly) The types of tax that were next in importance were the real and personal property taxes like the verponding, a kind of rates. This amounted to 8.5 ...
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2 votes
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What taxes were legally required to be paid in silver in Qing China?

Even under the early Qing when silver was relatively abundant, taxes weren't necessarily paid by households with physical silver, only assessed / denominated in terms of silver. As one article (which ...
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  • 17.5k
2 votes

Did the Greeks and Romans use reputational incentives to induce people to pay more tax?

Many public works were privately financed by completely voluntary benefactors. Those then had their names attached to buildings, like Flavian theatre, Basilica Maxentius, Baths of Caracalla etc. This ...
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