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38

This is based on an Estonian radio show, 'Müstiline Venemaa' ('Mystical Russia') by historian David Vseviov, chapters 'The Financing of Bolshevik Activities', which described the pre-1917 financing, and 'Banking. Money Reform' and 'Speculations around Money', which described activities after Bolsheviks formed the government. Summary Answer This is to ...


19

"abandoned Roman tax-payed army in favor of medieval feudal one, which was far worse." Paying an army with tax money does not confer inherently superior quality. While one could argue European feudal armies were inferior to the Roman legions, this had very little to do with taxation and much more to do with the fact that the Romans had a large, ...


14

I will try to answer this question beginning beyond its set time scope by including trade practices that were instituted in the late Roman/early Byzantine period and the Muslim world. In their work "Merchant Guilds, Taxation and Social Capital" they mention the following in Chapter 2.2 when analysing the medieval taxation on trade: From at least ...


13

Like most questions about Roman history, the answer depends on the era you're considering. In the early days of the Roman Republic, public taxes consisted of modest assessments on owned wealth and property. The tax rate under normal circumstances was 1% and sometimes would climb as high as 3% in situations such as war. These modest taxes were levied ...


11

Gaius Gracchus's reforms in 123BC saw the introduction of the practice of Tax Farming were the burden of tax collection was reassigned by the Roman State to private individuals or groups known as Publicani. In essence, these individuals or groups paid the taxes for a certain area and for a certain period of time and then attempted to cover their ...


11

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875 covers custom duties in the Roman Empire at some length: PORTO′RIUM was one branch of the regular revenues of the Roman state, consisting of the duties paid on imported and exported goods: sometimes, however, the name portorium is also applied to the duties raised upon goods for being ...


10

I think you're remembering a comment in Strabo's Geography, Book 4, Chapter 4, where he quotes Ephorus saying: Ephorus, in his account, makes Celtica so excessive in its size that he assigns to the regions of Celtic most of the regions, as far as Gades, of what we now call Iberia; further, he declares that the people are fond of the Greeks, and ...


10

Request vs Demand There is a difference between a theoretical right, and the practical ability to exercise that right. In theory, you are correct that the Confederation Congress was empowered to set tax quotas and due dates for the States.[1] In reality however, Congress had no actual means of enforcing this. Under the Articles of Confederation, ...


10

It is rather difficult to find an exact number for how much colonists paid in taxes This article on PBS Newshour says: the average British citizen who resided in Britain paid 26 shillings per year in taxes compared to only 1 shilling per year in New England So as near as I can tell the answer is 1 Shilling per year. From what I can find online my ...


10

The answer is no, for the majority of people. Most people in the Soviet Union had only one (legitimate) source of income: their salary. Tax was withheld at source, at a specified rate, and none of these people had to file any tax returns. There was a very small class of people called artisans who officially worked and sold the product of their work ...


8

First imagine a world without any coinage, where all purchases and sales must be achieved through barter. Further imagine that there are well accepted equivalencies, between all goods so that an average ox is understood to be worth 10 average sheep, 8 average goats, etc. Three of those goods will of course be copper, silver and gold, so that there will be ...


7

Such concern likely existed, and there is evidence of some cursory discussion to that effect during the proceedings of the Continental Congress. The rationale for creating a federal district with sole jurisdiction of the Congress was probably laid out best (among the surviving documents) by James Madison: The indispensable necessity of complete authority ...


7

I personally doubt this report's accuracy. I've seen numerous reports, news articles of the time 1918-20 in the American/British press that this just seems another one far from reality (like those in which the Bolsheviks were defeated etc). From what I know, since 1918 the Bolsheviks started "prodrazvyorstka" — commandeering grain from peasants. From this ...


6

The issuance of fines or taxes on luxury goods is part of the general phenomenon known as sumptuary laws. The Wikipedia article gives a good history. Also, note that Roman censors had the power to fine anybody they thought was living in a luxurious or dissipated manner. The Romans, in fact, made a huge deal out of enforcing puritanical morality on their ...


5

tl;dr Yes, it appears that debts were taken into account by the censors, and that details were provided as part of the statement given by every Roman citizen to the censors. This is an interesting question, and is complicated somewhat by the nature of Roman Law. Every Roman citizen was required to provide a statement of his familia (including his wife, ...


5

The Congress of the Confederation could "ascertain" and "appropriate" money from states or make "requisitions" on the States, as is stated in the Articles of Confederation: The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority . . . to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate ...


5

Today when we talk about "taxes" usually what is meant is Income Taxes. The US did not have much in the way of income taxes during your period; during the Civil War a 3% tax was introduced for incomes over $800 in the Revenue Act of 1861, and that went away after the war; 1894 saw a 2% tax, but only the richest 10% paid it, and that one got declared ...


5

There actually was no Federal Income Tax until 1861, and none during peacetime until 1894. Due to how Congress' taxation powers were worded, prior to the passage of the 16th Amendment, passing constitutional income taxes was a tricky proposition. Back then, the typical method of deriving income for the Federal government was import taxes and particularly ...


5

If the British Isles are within your range, the Pipe Rolls survived in a continuous series from 1155, with some earlier ones also extant. The UK National Archives has information online about how to access them. The Pipe Roll Society is dedicated to publishing them. Unless you're a Latin scholar, you'll want to access someone else's research into the rolls ...


5

The direct/indirect distinction is minorly anachronistic. As Bernard Bailyn discusses at length, the colonists denounced the Stamp Act (1765) as an internal tax, claiming that Parliament only had the right to levy external taxes. External taxes affected international trade, whereas internal taxes affected colonial affairs—and because the colonists had no ...


5

I believe the answer is "everything except for the tax on tea". The Townshend Acts except for the taxes on tea were finally repealed in March of 1770. Wikipedia confirms On the 5 of March 1770— the same day as the Boston Massacre—Lord North, the new Prime Minister, presented a motion in the House of Commons that called for partial repeal of the ...


4

Let's look at inflation first. "when the coins are too much altered, the result is inflation." When coins are altered, they are almost always debased - other metals are mixed with silver to allow the government to mint more coins with the same amount of specie. So if I have enough silver to produce 1000 coins, and I mix in 50% tin, I can now produce ...


4

Using Measuring worth and the initial values supplied by @WladimirPalant: The harm to British Interests: In 2011 £14 million using UK average earnings inflation In 2011 £91 million using share of UK GDP inflation The losses to the nascent US economy (using 1774 base year, 1773 and earlier unavailable). Using 6s to the dollar: In 2013 $1 million using ...


4

Not sure they were the first laws primarily motivated by "moral outrage" but the the effects on the poor of cheap, low quality gin certainly was a factor in passing the British Gin Acts of 1736 and 1751 - cf Hogarth's Gin Lane and Beer Street. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gin_Craze#Increased_Consumption_of_Gin


4

In medieval times (and even in modern times) taxes were highly irregular and varied from place to place. In many instances a "tax" was really just a robbery. For example, in England since Domesday the most omnipresent "tax" was what was called the "hearth tax". The way this originally worked is that Norman soldiers went from village to village and visited ...


4

A list question par excellence but I'll allow myself to be tempted nevertheless... Agis IV & Cleomenes III. The Gracchi brothers. Kavadh I. Thomas Sankara.


3

I'm not a historian and have no expertise on California, but overall it seems that neither of these regimes would have had much capacity to impose taxes in Alta California. In theory, according to a Wikipedia article, there were import tarriffs and a tithe or land tax called the diezmo: Since the government depended on import tariffs (also called Custom ...


3

Specially for you, a remarkable book survives, and there is even an excellent English translation with technical commentaries. And free on the Internet: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Frontinus/De_Aquis/text*.html Frontinus was a noble who was appointed by the princeps (Nerva) to supervise the water supply system of Rome. He decided to ...


3

This graph illustrates the top inheritance tax rates since 1900 for four major Western governments: U.K., U.S., France, and Germany. For the U.K. in regards the two world wars it shows the top rate changing: in 1915 from from 15% to 20% and again in 1919 to 40%; in 1940 from 55% to 65% and again in 1945 to 75%


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