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5

Your question misses the key point that across all of U.S. and Canada the various Bell companies sorted all long distance conversations into three distinct tariff classes based on the start time of the connection in the Caller's time zone. In Bell Canada's jurisdiction (most of Ontario and Quebec) those tariff classes were, as best I recall, the following: ...


1

In my recollection of telephones in the late 1950's: first, rarely did anyone attempt any sort of long-distance phone call, exactly because of the various troubles mentioned in the question. My parent's house had a "party line", and our "ring" was "two shorts, and a long". To place calls "locally" we had to talk to an operator in all cases. Given the ...


4

I believe what you are talking about is the rate of accumulation of knowledge, aka information. There's a relatively new branch of history called Informationalist History that studies this. As an example, Douglas S. Robertson has classified all societies based on the amount of information, in bits, that a typical member has access to. Each is categorized ...


8

I'm not sure there was a 'typical' speed. Most that I've read about have a speed in the range 9 - 11 knots. Some examples include: The tramp steamer SS Monarch was launched in 1885, and had a design speed of approximately 10 knots. The SS Daleby was built in 1900, and had a speed of 9.5 knots. The Sizergh Castle was launched in 1903, and had a speed of 9 ...


2

One basic instrument seems to have been the odometer, described in Vitrivius' book, Chapter 9. Similar mechanisms could also measure miles by sea, by using a paddled wheel. Thus, as the wheel proceeds, it acts on the first drum- wheel, the tooth of which, in every revolution, striking the tooth of the upper wheel, causes it to move on; so ...


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