33

(1) "The Battle of France" - so called by the French. The the term "Battle of France is widely used for the WW2 fighting of the French against the German invasion. See e.g. Wikipedia Battle of France And the naming of it accordingly is attested to e.g. Winston Churchill: here ... What General Weygand has called The Battle of France is over. The ...


26

The "Middle Ages" or medieval period generally refers to the entire time span between classical antiquity and the modern era in Western history. The Middle Ages lasted approximately AD 500 - 1500, from the fall of the (Western) Roman Empire to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the discovery and colonization of the New World. The Middle Ages are often ...


26

A decade is simply a time span of 10 years and a century a span of 100 years. The start dates of each are determined by how they are being used. The first decade of 21st century is 2000s I think that statement is where the problem lies. Strictly speaking it isn't true. Under the Gregorian calendar, the 21st Century started on January 1, 2001. The date ...


23

The Austro-Prussian War is currently known in Germany as "Deutscher Krieg", or "The German War" - though it was originally known as "Preußisch-Deutscher Krieg", or "Prussian-German War". Another contender are the Napoleonic Wars--or the Guerres napoléoniennes, as they are called in France.


23

Paul von Hindenburg called Hitler a "böhmischer Gefreiter". He (and others) wrongly assumed that Hitler was born in Broumov (called Braunau in German) that is indeed in Bohemia (today Czech Republic). However, that was a mistake, as Hitler was born in the actual town of Braunau in Austria. At the time of Hitler's birth, both towns belonged to the Austro-...


21

From a British perspective, America is not used exclusively as a synonym for the USA. I have several times encountered the conversation: "Where are you from" "America." "Oh cool. Which country." "The United States." Another example would be a recent BBC program I watched talking about geography in Iceland. The presenter was standing on the fault line ...


21

Ancient religions don't generally have technical names, at least not at the civilizational level. Think "Ancient Greek religion", "Ancient Egyptian religion", etc. Here is a technical article summarizing what little is known about Phoenician religion (as of 1990 anyway). It is aptly titled "Phoenician Religion" and does not offer a general alternative term.


20

According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the name refers to its being between the Ancient Age and the Modern Age. It was a loan translation (calque) from Latin medium aevum, attested from the 1610s. The Latin term itself was first recorded in 1604, and an earlier variation was media tempestas (middle times, first appeared in 1469).


20

I can think of an example of this from the ancient period: The Lamian War(323–322 BC): was known to the ancient Greeks as the "Hellenic War". Obviously there were many wars in ancient Greece that we could call "Hellenic Wars" but this particular one was explicitly noted by Diodorus Siculus as such. Independent Greek states fought on both sides of this war:...


19

Usually "Danes", or the "pagans"[note], or possibly the "Northmen" - though the last was more of a Continental usage. In Francia these Scandinavians were called 'Northmen' or 'Danes' (in translation), and in England they were called 'Danes' or 'pagans' in contemporary chronicles. Brink, Stefan. "Who were the Vikings?" Brink, Stefan, and Neil Price, ...


16

Not every thesis has a single antithesis or opposite. However, we can highlight a few trends or schools of thought in historiography (the study of history) that contrast most sharply with the Great Man Thesis. One such answer is implicitly given in the question itself: historical sociology. The early sociologist Herbert Spencer directly critiqued the Great ...


15

Postmodern This is a cultural rather than a historical science term. It refers to the contemporary line of reasoning which can be also called ultra-relativism, i.e., not just that any statement's veracity is relative, but its meaning is relative as well. Modern et al I think this terminology went like this: Pre-modern: 1500-1800 Modern: 1800-WW2 ...


15

The phrase is a likely reference to the book, Don Quixote. Thomas Paine is familiar with the book and uses the imagery in the "Rights of Man" to attack Edmund Burke: In the rhapsody of his imagination, he has discovered a world of windmills, and his sorrows are, that there are no Quixotes to attack them.” Don Quixote follows the adventures of ...


15

It depends on which history you mean. As an academic discipline, "history" is usually taken to mean the human past, and thus began with humans. This could be the emergence of homo sapiens (300,000 BP), or stone-tool wielding homoninds (3.3 million BP), or even further back, the evolutionary divergence of humans from chimpanzees. Specifically, history in ...


14

Dr. Susan Snyder, my medieval and ancient history professor, argued that the term "Dark Age" was inappropriate for the early Middle Ages because we still have some records from it and some innovation took place. If we said "Dark Age" in class, we had to be referring to the Greek Dark Age, a period with some actual gaps in the historic record. We lose track ...


13

No one "coined" it; it is a romanization of the genitive form of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. The -i suffix is the usual way to transliterate it, just as we have Saudi, Kuwaiti, Omani, and so on. (The more common way in English to create a genitive for a thinker would be to use the Greek-derived -ic or the Latin-derived -an, hence you do see Wahhabic and ...


13

According to I Am America. (And So?), a New York Times article by Wyatt Mason (published in 2007), the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller was "misled by a document known as the Soderini Letter, a narrative account said to have been by Vespucci but believed by modern scholars to have been forged by unscrupulous publishers." The Soderini Letter ...


13

One potential answer is "The People's Crusade." This certainly refers to the people fighting it (peasants instead of noblemen). I haven't found any primary source material for contemporaries calling it "The People's Crusade", but this source seems to suggest that it was called "The Popular Crusade" which is fairly close. As two sheds and Steve Jessop ...


12

To be honest, at first I was upset with your question. I mean, every child in Poland is taught that Christopher Columbus discovered America. How would it be possible if America would be precisely synonymous with United States, as it was written by you. Also my Brasilian friend Rodrigo, who stays at my place for few days, asked me to write it here that he ...


11

Naming a war after the leader of our side (especially if he wants to be remembered for the victory, even anticipated) like in "Napoleonic Wars" as referenced by two sheds seems to be the most natural case of naming the war after one's side. In Clone Wars it's a different case: naming the war after a key or new weapon. I don't know about any war named like ...


11

It is short for adhibendum. I think the English equivalent would be something along the lines of "annex" or "appendix". As in, "Appendix B, Vol II, Proceedings of the School Conference of 1891". I don't believe this is a general history convention. As far as I can determine, it's mainly a German usage; the example you gave is also citing a German ...


10

For infantry (cavalry and artillery are organized differently), the recruiting and training organization is the regiment. Regiments field battalions (service battalions) and additionally maintain a cadre of experienced officers (both commissioned and warrant) and NCO's that trains replacements soldiers. This training unit is the depot battalion. As an ...


9

As an addendum to Choster's answer, Here is the English usage of "Wahhabi", according to Google's book data: (Click for larger image)


9

Latin Americans consider themselves "Americans," because South (and Central) America are part of the "American" continent. To distinguish themselves from people from the United States of America, Latins call the latter NORTH Americans. This could (but usually doesn't) refer to Canadians, who are generally referred to as "Canadians" by the Latins. ...


9

I believe in the most general sense "America" means the continent of America which includes both North and South America. But what is colloquially referred to as "America" (mostly by "Americans") is widely regarded as just the United States of America. The colloquial usage excludes Puerto Rico (do you consider Puerto Rico America?) and our neighbour Canada (...


9

Just because a nation claims a cultural icon doesn't mean they necessarily invented it; the Statue of Liberty for example is made by the French, depicts a Roman goddess, and is mostly known for its links to immigration. Apple pie is, as you've noted, very old and well known in Europe centuries before USA existed. Apples were however very important to early ...


9

It didn't. The word mirror (First Known Use: 13th century) predates the phrase looking glass by several hundred years(First Known Use of looking glass 1562). Just different words for the same thing. If you do a google book search and set the publication date to pre-Through the Looking Glass(1871) you will find a publications dating to 1776 with Mirror ...


8

It was invented in the Renaissance- intellectuals seeking the ancient antiquity saw the ages between the fall of the Roman empire and the renewed interest in it as a long period of darkness and backwardness, the time that ''separated'' them from that culture and era they sought so much, hence the term Middle Ages. It derives from that period, and was kept in ...


8

Hmm... Perhaps the War of the League of Augsburg / War of the Grand Alliance / Nine Years' War would count, at least with respect to the first two of those names. According to Wikipedia, The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, the Dutch Republic, England, the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland, ...


8

The opposite view holds that extra-human dynamics govern the courses of events. This is a recurring theme of Tolstoy's War and Peace, a fundamental principle of Marx's dialectical materialism; it is also regurgitated by Jared Diamond in his Guns Germs & Steel. People who believe in governing dynamics would argue that the Renaissance was caused by ...


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