33

(1) "The Battle of France" - so called by the French. The the term "Battle of France is widely used for the WW2 fighting of the French against the German invasion. See e.g. Wikipedia Battle of France And the naming of it accordingly is attested to e.g. Winston Churchill: here ... What General Weygand has called The Battle of France is over. The ...


26

A decade is simply a time span of 10 years and a century a span of 100 years. The start dates of each are determined by how they are being used. The first decade of 21st century is 2000s I think that statement is where the problem lies. Strictly speaking it isn't true. Under the Gregorian calendar, the 21st Century started on January 1, 2001. The date ...


23

The Austro-Prussian War is currently known in Germany as "Deutscher Krieg", or "The German War" - though it was originally known as "Preußisch-Deutscher Krieg", or "Prussian-German War". Another contender are the Napoleonic Wars--or the Guerres napoléoniennes, as they are called in France.


23

Ancient religions don't generally have technical names, at least not at the civilizational level. Think "Ancient Greek religion", "Ancient Egyptian religion", etc. Here is a technical article summarizing what little is known about Phoenician religion (as of 1990 anyway). It is aptly titled "Phoenician Religion" and does not offer a general alternative term.


23

Paul von Hindenburg called Hitler a "böhmischer Gefreiter". He (and others) wrongly assumed that Hitler was born in Broumov (called Braunau in German) that is indeed in Bohemia (today Czech Republic). However, that was a mistake, as Hitler was born in the actual town of Braunau in Austria. At the time of Hitler's birth, both towns belonged to the Austro-...


22

I can think of an example of this from the ancient period: The Lamian War(323–322 BC): was known to the ancient Greeks as the "Hellenic War". Obviously there were many wars in ancient Greece that we could call "Hellenic Wars" but this particular one was explicitly noted by Diodorus Siculus as such. Independent Greek states fought on both sides of this war:...


19

Usually "Danes", or the "pagans"[note], or possibly the "Northmen" - though the last was more of a Continental usage. In Francia these Scandinavians were called 'Northmen' or 'Danes' (in translation), and in England they were called 'Danes' or 'pagans' in contemporary chronicles. Brink, Stefan. "Who were the Vikings?" Brink, Stefan, and Neil Price, ...


16

Not every thesis has a single antithesis or opposite. However, we can highlight a few trends or schools of thought in historiography (the study of history) that contrast most sharply with the Great Man Thesis. One such answer is implicitly given in the question itself: historical sociology. The early sociologist Herbert Spencer directly critiqued the Great ...


15

Postmodern This is a cultural rather than a historical science term. It refers to the contemporary line of reasoning which can be also called ultra-relativism, i.e., not just that any statement's veracity is relative, but its meaning is relative as well. Modern et al I think this terminology went like this: Pre-modern: 1500-1800 Modern: 1800-WW2 ...


15

The phrase is a likely reference to the book, Don Quixote. Thomas Paine is familiar with the book and uses the imagery in the "Rights of Man" to attack Edmund Burke: In the rhapsody of his imagination, he has discovered a world of windmills, and his sorrows are, that there are no Quixotes to attack them.” Don Quixote follows the adventures of ...


15

It depends on which history you mean. As an academic discipline, "history" is usually taken to mean the human past, and thus began with humans. This could be the emergence of homo sapiens (300,000 BP), or stone-tool wielding homoninds (3.3 million BP), or even further back, the evolutionary divergence of humans from chimpanzees. Specifically, history in ...


13

One potential answer is "The People's Crusade." This certainly refers to the people fighting it (peasants instead of noblemen). I haven't found any primary source material for contemporaries calling it "The People's Crusade", but this source seems to suggest that it was called "The Popular Crusade" which is fairly close. As two sheds and Steve Jessop ...


13

The simple reason is that Mussolini came first. He came to power in his famous March on Rome and subsequently became a bit of a role model for nationalist would-be dictators. When Hitler and Ludendorff tried to take power in Munich before a subsequent "March on Berlin" a little more than a year later, the parallels (beyond Blackshirts and ...


11

Naming a war after the leader of our side (especially if he wants to be remembered for the victory, even anticipated) like in "Napoleonic Wars" as referenced by two sheds seems to be the most natural case of naming the war after one's side. In Clone Wars it's a different case: naming the war after a key or new weapon. I don't know about any war named like ...


11

It is short for adhibendum. I think the English equivalent would be something along the lines of "annex" or "appendix". As in, "Appendix B, Vol II, Proceedings of the School Conference of 1891". I don't believe this is a general history convention. As far as I can determine, it's mainly a German usage; the example you gave is also citing a German ...


10

To avoid admitting ideological closeness Before we get to the problem of National-Socialists, let´s first address Fascists. It is a well known fact that Benito Mussolini was a Socialist before he started supporting Italian entry in WW1 in 1914. What is perhaps less known is that rump northern part of Italy, after the capitulation of Kingdom of Italy in 1943, ...


10

In cricket scoring, a distinction is made between: No-ball: "[A ball] unfairly bowled." - OED (1928) A “No Ball” can be declared for many reasons: If the bowler bowls the ball from the wrong place, the ball is declared dangerous (often happens when bowled at the batsmen’s body on the full), bounces more than twice or rolls before reaching the ...


9

It didn't. The word mirror (First Known Use: 13th century) predates the phrase looking glass by several hundred years(First Known Use of looking glass 1562). Just different words for the same thing. If you do a google book search and set the publication date to pre-Through the Looking Glass(1871) you will find a publications dating to 1776 with Mirror ...


9

Just because a nation claims a cultural icon doesn't mean they necessarily invented it; the Statue of Liberty for example is made by the French, depicts a Roman goddess, and is mostly known for its links to immigration. Apple pie is, as you've noted, very old and well known in Europe centuries before USA existed. Apples were however very important to early ...


9

The meaning of "barso" is clearer than its origin. Samuli Kaislaniemi analyzed it in his PhD thesis Reconstructing Merchant Multilingualism : Lexical Studies of Early English East India Company Correspondence, p. 256: RC uses barso in the sense 'little barrel' (cf. Farrington 1991:805). Etymology uncertain; does not appear in PD It., Pt., or Sp. (...


9

For infantry (cavalry and artillery are organized differently), the recruiting and training organization is the regiment. Regiments field battalions (service battalions) and additionally maintain a cadre of experienced officers (both commissioned and warrant) and NCO's that trains replacements soldiers. This training unit is the depot battalion. As an ...


8

You have somewhat answered your own question. The Reeve and Bailiff were essentially the same job in Medieval England. The Reeve was a person that oversaw the land and crops and was in charge of the peasants. A reeve was basically an estate manager. A reeve is actually described in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, describing the reeve as a highly ...


8

Hmm... Perhaps the War of the League of Augsburg / War of the Grand Alliance / Nine Years' War would count, at least with respect to the first two of those names. According to Wikipedia, The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, the Dutch Republic, England, the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland, ...


8

The opposite view holds that extra-human dynamics govern the courses of events. This is a recurring theme of Tolstoy's War and Peace, a fundamental principle of Marx's dialectical materialism; it is also regurgitated by Jared Diamond in his Guns Germs & Steel. People who believe in governing dynamics would argue that the Renaissance was caused by ...


8

I believe your subtext is incorrect - "most popular" is an inappropriate approach to take to correct usage. The correct usage, in either language, should be determined by which of the two roles is most relevant to the discussion. South and Central America were never part of the Holy Roman Empire, so they were explored and conquered by and in the name of ...


7

It is not only historians who decide. Usually, the "Allies" call such themselves. For example, you refer to World War I. Please remember, that on the very beginning there were two blocs: Triple Entente (France allied with Russia along with United Kingdom, which was not allied to anybody, except the Commonwealth), and Triple Alliance (Germany allied with ...


7

To expand on Razie Mah's answer, A Knight of the Post is, courtesy of The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: a professional false witness of 15th to 17th century England. In drawing a contrast between the romantic and chivalrous Knights of the Windmill, and the completely despicable professional liars and oath-breakers-for-hire termed Knights to the Post,...


7

Spengler uses one definition (around 8 civilizations), Toynbee uses another (around 23 civilizations), Huntington has its own (actually close to 10 civilizations). Therefore the question is quite open. in fact, Toynbee dedicates almost half volume to describe the definition of civilization as a study field. Under Toynbee definition: A civilization would be ...


7

Apples & oranges. I don't think there are official, or even conventional definitions for any of these terms; they vary depending on context. If you're talking to a paleontologist, the definition of the modern era will be very different from the definitions used by a historian specializing in "Democracy" or "women's rights", or whatever. "Postmodern"...


7

Petrarch, in the 14th C, started using the term Renaissance and from there the term middle ages quickly arrived. You had the classical period ending in, pick-your-date (313,325,476,600) and the rebirth, which, according to Petrarch, was in the "now."


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