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17

Based on what I've found, I would say that it was a combination of factors that all amplified each other. The conquest of Albania was particularly brutal compared to the rest of the region, and was furthermore contested through the revolt of Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu, which lasted from 1443 through 1468. Even by that time, the region of Krujë had ...


14

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a second largely Muslim state in the Balkans, with most ethnic Bosnians traditionally professing the Muslim faith. However the Bosnian, Serb and Croat populations in this area are densely intertwined historically, aggravating racial tensions in the Bosnian War of 1992-1995. The Ottoman empire was not (through most of its occupation ...


12

Prince Metternich is reputed to have said, "The Balkans begin at the Rennweg". The Rennweg is a street that led southwest out of the Austrian capital, Vienna. It runs through modern Vienna's third district, Landstraße. Another variant of the supposed quote is, "Asia begins at the Landstrasse".


9

The road in question, the Rennweg, begins at the Landstrasse in the south center of modern Vienna, at the southern edge of what was then Vienna. When Metternich referred to the "Balkans," he was referring to the non-German speaking part of Austria, variously referred to as the "east" of even as "Asia." This was because it represented the "high water mark" ...


8

Any medieval sources that mention "Macedonians" or a "Macedonian people" are doing so in a geographic context. You could have people who spoke Slavic, Vlach, Albanian or Greek in Byzantine Macedonia that could have been described as "Macedonian". In the middle ages and into the nineteenth century, the term Macedonian was used entirely in reference to a ...


8

Many ethnic greeks also converted to Islam but were expelled from mainland Greece and the islands after the independence of Greece and also in 1922. In Syria and Lebanon there are remnants of this community. I also know a Lybian friend of mine whose grandmother was Cretan (not Turkish) muslim. I find Tyler's comment claiming that Islam was suited for ...


6

The Second Balkan War was an unfortunate, but natural continuation of the First Balkan War mostly due to the newly liberated (current border) regions with mixed population and due to the strong influence of the European Great Powers, i.e. United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary which were struggling to establish and realize their strategic interests ...


6

Albanians are not the only nation in the Balkans to accept Islam. All societies had groups accepting Islam. The difference of the Albanians is that they are the only nation in the Balkans, who managed to have a national identity above religion. Which means that the term Albanian covers all Albanians of Muslim, Orthodox or Catholic faiths. This is not ...


5

The Battle of Kosovo took place on June 15, 1389 Question: Why didn't the Hungarians help the battle of Kosovo? Short Answer: Hungary was a powerful country but had it's own troubles to deal with prior to dealing with the Ottomans. The Serbians were Eastern Orthodox Christians, Hungarians were Catholic. Thus they were not traditional allies. ...


5

You must remember that (in example of Serbia) during Ottoman Empire, late 19th century country was mostly dotted with villages, town population were small. Here is one example of game played in villages: http://www.srbijuvolimo.rs/media/k2/items/cache/7c7c638ef981276293e3733a3f885395_L.jpg Game looks somehow like modern football game, but rules were ...


4

Religious and cultural diversity were part of the Ottoman Empire during its whole life, hence this alone can't be the reason of its decline. Also, the Empire reached its max size around 1680 and remained stable for a century or more. What weakened the Ottoman Empire was: - European industrialization - Colonialism - Nationalism In short industrialization ...


4

From the Ottoman POV, though, the area was Rumelia; the name derived from Rûm (Roman) in reference to the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as Byzantine Empire, which had previously controlled the area.


3

In the original "state people" is Staatsvolk or the national people of a nationalist state. Arendt's usage is somewhat in contrast to the definition of that Wikipedia link: The people of a state are usually understood to be the sum of citizens who have a legal relationship with their state and of persons who may in principle be on an equal footing with ...


3

Your question is based on a false premise: "I'm sure there are regions that are just as ethnically diverse, but with less fragmentation and animosity between different ethnicities. So why is this the case in the Balkans?" Here are the countries of the Balkans listed by descending area in square kilometres), with the additional nations of England, ...


3

Given that you require a historical backdrop (your comments) and the year is 1478, I believe you can get more historical info by focusing on the last years of King Matthias Corvinus (a decent map there, Wikipedia). Also, find below an actual map and some basic info of Ottoman expansion in Europe during this period, from The Cambridge History of Turkey. ...


3

I initially mentioned this text in a comment on the question. Although it seems this is not the specific text the OP was looking for, I'm also posting it as an answer since the text contains many of the features of that guide and others might therefore find it a useful resource. Furthermore, as Pieter Geerkens has quite rightly observed in the comments ...


3

The conversion process lasted for hundred of years. -After the death of Scanderbeg, Albanian lands were totally under the Ottoman rule. Probably, at first in some zones of the country, force was used to convert people to Islam. -Another huge reason of conversion to Islam as a way of saving their ethnicity since they were surrounded by Slavs. Many orthodox ...


2

The Treaty of Berlin (1878-9) allowed for the occupation and administration of Bosnia/HG only to the extent that it did not abrogate the personal rights of the sultan in the territory. The language included the statement (in French) reading: The fact of the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina does not prejudice [ne portant pas atteinte] the rights of ...


2

More a comment than a satisfying answer, but since I am lacking the reputation to comment, I have to do it this way: Santiago's answer is more related to the acceleration of the decline. The defeat of the Ottoman army during the second siege of Vienna in 1683 marked the beginning of the downturn of the Ottoman Empire - more than 100 years before European ...


2

Italy, like Austria-Hungary, also wanted to be a Great Power. Unlike Austria-Hungary, Italy saw the road to this status in the scramble for Africa. (Austria-Hungary preferred to try its luck in the Balkans.) This was the country, remember, that first attacked Abysinnia in 1895-6, losing, then finally succeeding in 1934-5. The Ottoman Empire was known (in ...


1

It is a complex issue, for which there is no simple answer. Yugoslavia was once described as country with two alphabets (Latin and Cyrillic), three religions (Catholic Christianity, Orthodox Christianity and Islam) and four languages (Macedonian, Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian). And you want to make a country out of that? However, given that Croats and ...


1

The guide you speak of was recently shown on the first episode of a History Channel program called "The First World war". As a Slav the document in questioned piqued my interest also. I hope you track it down. The program must have been made circa 2010-13, as the narrator alluded to the 100th anniversary of the war as being imminent.


1

According to the entry concerning the Southern Slavs it is quite probable that the common language source would be due to common ancestry: The Byzantines broadly grouped the numerous Slav tribes into two groups: the Sclaveni and Antes.[8] They are both first encountered in the lower Danube region. Some, such as Bulgarian scholar Vasil Zlatarski, ...


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