15

Swedish army I have one word for you in this case: hymns. Religion and prayer were very systematically organized in the Swedish army: [Gustavus Adolphus] led troops in singing hymns as they marched to war, ordered prayers twice daily by the whole army, and assigned pastors to every regiment. This blend of prayer and black powder made the Swedish ...


12

According to this source by the Treaty of Bärwald: Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Bärwald of the 23rd of January 1631. Wikipedia states: The treaty obliged Sweden to maintain an army of 36,000 troops, and France to fund the Swedish army ...


10

The problem with doing that is that there was an established precedent in Western Europe that an "emperor" had to be proclaimed as such by the pope. Even Napoleon, who held a popular referendum on his accession to Emperor, required a Papal ceremony to make it official. For a protestant ruler, that's obviously not going to happen. Now, he could I suppose ...


7

The 1618 Prague defenestration took place on May 23th, 1618 and Oñate's news about it arrived to Madrid in July 1618. This is compatible with the duration of the communication to be 5-7 weeks which is absolutely reasonable. 200,000 ducats were immediately reserved to beat the courageous Czechs and additional 500,000 ducates were sent in November. The ...


7

Actually papal consent was no longer required. On July 16, 1338, six of the seven electors met at Rhense and declared that election by a majority of electors was enough to make someone King of the Romans and future emperor, and popes had no right to interfere. Emperor Louis IV decreed on August 6, 1338, that the person elected immediately had full imperial ...


5

Some aspects of the below were specific to Sweden while others common to most belligerents in the war. Where possible, I used Swedish examples as that was the OP's topic of interest. Changes during the Thirty Years War The long period of warfare seems to have been the cause for changes in how prisoners were dealt with. This is a general overview which ...


5

Even after the Peace of Westphalia, Swedish rule was well-regarded to the extent that it was regarded at all. The problem was that Swedish rulers exerted very little power in Pomerania, where two-seventh of the people still lived in serfdom at this late date, and the rest of the rural poor were not much better off.This was due to the power of the local ...


1

Prior to the early part of the 16th century, that is 1517, there was no religious Catholic Protestant split to speak of. The European Wars of the 16th century mostly centered around the Holy Roman Empire (HRE), the entity that was the one most divided by the Catholic-Protestant split. This would include the modern Netherlands and Belgium, (shaded pink on ...


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