58 votes
Accepted

Why does the King of Spain still claim defunct titles like the King of Hungary?

They're maintained as a matter of tradition, which is not unusual in monarchies. It's used both for prestige and as a relic of an era when European diplomacy revolved around territorial claims of the ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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55 votes
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Have any kings ever been serving admirals?

It turns out William IV wasn't called the "Sailor King" for nothing. He was a younger son of George III and thus didn't expect ever to become king. His naval career began at the age of ...
C Monsour's user avatar
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55 votes

Who was the last leader of a country to call himself a dictator, or the last regime that called itself a dictatorship?

"Was" is the wrong tense used here. The basic task of the nation in the years to come is to concentrate its effort on socialist modernization. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
42 votes

Who was the last leader of a country to call himself a dictator, or the last regime that called itself a dictatorship?

Since 2019 the El Salvadorian President Nayib Armando Bukele Ortez is in office. The current developments were characterised as "precursor to a dictatorship," and a representative from the ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
35 votes

Who was the last leader of a country to call himself a dictator, or the last regime that called itself a dictatorship?

Alexander Lukashenko has been the president of Belarus since 1994. He called himself "the last and only dictator in Europe" in a 2012 interview. Q: Some Western politicians call you a ...
Michael Seifert's user avatar
32 votes

Have any kings ever been serving admirals?

Leotychidas II of Sparta During the Greco-Persian Wars, King Leotychidas II of Sparta (reigned 491 to 476 BC) was appointed admiral in overall command of the Greek fleet in 479 BC, while he was king. ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
31 votes
Accepted

Was the title "Prince of Wales" originally claimed for the English crown prince via a trick?

tl;dr: No, at least not in the sense suggested. The earliest source of something akin to this story, seems to be the 1584 Historie of Cambria, now called Wales, the first printed history of Wales. ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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30 votes
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Who was the last leader of a country to call himself a dictator, or the last regime that called itself a dictatorship?

Perhaps that my own country (Portugal) is the answer. In 1926 we had a military revolution and in 1928 one the leaders of that revolution, general Óscar Carmona, was elected president of Portugal. The ...
José Carlos Santos's user avatar
28 votes
Accepted

Why did Peter the Great change his daughters' title to Tsesarevna?

When Peter 'upgraded' the Russian title of 'tsar' (царь) to 'emperor' (император), this meant that the corresponding titles would have to be given a similar jump upwards. The specific issue arose ...
gktscrk's user avatar
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27 votes
Accepted

When was the last promotion in the British Peerage?

On 7 December 1964, when the former Lord High Chancellor Reginald Manningham-Buller was created Viscount Dilhorne, of Greens Norton in the County of Northampton. He had originally been elevated to the ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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20 votes
Accepted

Did the later Byzantine Emperors use regnal numbers?

According to the Wikipedia article on Constantine XI Palaiologos, no. Despite the increase in emperors with the same name during the Middle Ages, such as the several Michaels and Constantines, the ...
Brian Z's user avatar
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18 votes
Accepted

Why is the heir to the British throne called "Prince of Wales"?

Short and Simple answer (actually, it's not so simple...) The granting of the title 'Prince of Wales' by Edward I to his son (the future Edward II) was a demonstration of his authority over Wales and ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
18 votes
Accepted

By what legal mechanism was Catherine Howard deprived of her title of Queen of England?

It is not clear that a deprivation of title actually took place. There was a formal reduction in Katherine's dignity when she was transferred to house imprisonment in Syon Abbey, but official papers ...
Whitestone's user avatar
17 votes

If the heir to a Kingdom is called Crown Prince, what is the heir to a Duchy called?

The children of a sovereign Grand Duke may be titled "Prince" (Luxembourg, Tuscany, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Saxe-Weimar) or "Duke" (Oldenburg) in accordance with the customs of the dynasty. The heir ...
MCW's user avatar
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17 votes

How did Egyptian Pharaohs get their title?

The short answer is: "No, there is no evidence of this in historical records". The word, 'pharaoh' [pr aA] is first attested in the First Dynasty, about 3150 BCE. It means 'great house', ...
sempaiscuba's user avatar
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17 votes
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What was an "alower of Society debts" in colonial America?

Presumably you are referring to an extract from the Essex Historical Records on Richard French, born 1675: Richard French, born in Topsfield, Aug. 18, 1676, called husbandman and yeoman in deeds, ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
16 votes

Why does the King of Spain still claim defunct titles like the King of Hungary?

It's actually not that unusual for monarchs to claim titles in pretence as a means of increasing their prestige. The Kings of England and Great Britain had famously claimed to also be Kings/Queens of ...
sempaiscuba's user avatar
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16 votes

Was there a Princess of Wales between 1727 and 1736?

There wasn't one. The Princess of Wales is a courtesy title. That is, its holders are not created princesses in their own right, but rather accorded that honour only by virtue of marriage to the ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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16 votes

Have any kings ever been serving admirals?

King James II was commander of the Royal Navy from 1660 to 1674, during the second and third Anglo-Dutch wars, before he became king. The text accompanying the image of his portrait at the Maritime ...
kimchi lover's user avatar
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13 votes
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Why was "Caesar" borrowed for the imperial title in German rather than "Augustus"?

Caesar came first, and Caesar remained. We observe that the first really big contact between Germanic tribes and Rome took place when Gaius Iulius Caesar was campaigning 'in Gaul'. We observe also ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
13 votes

If the heir to a Kingdom is called Crown Prince, what is the heir to a Duchy called?

Don't be misled by translations and cognates (words in different languages sharing a common root). German "mist" and English "mist" are cognates - but German "mist" is what farmers spread on their ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
13 votes

Have any kings ever been serving admirals?

Lars Bosteen mentioned a Spartan King and Admiral in the Greco-Persian wars. Artesmisia I was queen of the city state of Halicarnassus and the nearby islands of Kos, Nisyros, and Kalymnos. Her ...
MAGolding's user avatar
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13 votes

Who was the last leader of a country to call himself a dictator, or the last regime that called itself a dictatorship?

The Centrocaspian Dictatorship ruled from July to September 1918 in and around the city of Baku in current Azerbaijan. This anti-Soviet country was not recognised by any other and soon overrun/...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 3,754
11 votes
Accepted

Did Washington like or dislike the monarchical styles of address proposed by John Adams?

The dialog on HBO is obviously dramatised, but Washington did privately profess to disapprove of such titles. In a letter to David Stuart dated 26 July 1789, Washington wrote that: It is to be ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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10 votes
Accepted

When and how did the presidents of states became governors in the U.S.A?

I am aware of four states that used to style their chief executives as "president": Delaware, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. All of these positions were established in 1776, when the ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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9 votes

Was Erich Ludendorff any form of nobility?

There seems to be three different claims as to why Ludendorff should be considered noble in the question: Ludendorff being descended from Eric XIV of Sweden. Ludendorff being descended from several ...
andejons's user avatar
  • 5,661
9 votes

What were the heir and children of monarchs with the titles "Grand Prince" or "Prince" called?

There is unlikely to be one answer which applies to the whole breadth of time and place that you've included; you'd have to focus on a particular state or tradition. Very few countries in the world ...
IMSoP's user avatar
  • 578
9 votes

Who was the last leader of a country to call himself a dictator, or the last regime that called itself a dictatorship?

Marxists have been using the term dictatorship of the proletariat in the positive sense long after the word become an grave insult for Western liberals. In the USSR, it was not until 1934 when XVII ...
jmster's user avatar
  • 564
7 votes

Why is the heir to the British throne called "Prince of Wales"?

(I know Lars Bosteen has provided an answer but in the interest of completing this answer, I've provided a slight update.) This is two questions rolled into one: Why, in particular, Wales? How did ...
J Asia's user avatar
  • 6,323
6 votes
Accepted

Did Catherine of Aragon use the title Princess of Wales before she was married to Prince Arthur?

It would have been treason for any English subject to do so. Absent the Battle of Bosworth, Catherine had a stronger de jure claim to the English throne, through descent from John of Gaunt's first ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar

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