13

We drink champagne on New Year's in large part due to savvy marketing in the late 19th century. At first, royal favor made champagne an easy sell to the nobility. But with the rise of industrialization in the 19th century, the nobles were no longer guaranteed to be the wealthiest consumers. Champagne producers dangled their products in front of the ...


11

The officers were paroled, and without any ransom as late as at start of WW1. For example the later marshal Tuchachevsky was a "poruchik" (senior lieutenant) then and was taken as a prisoner by Germans. As with all other officers, he was allowed to walk into the town and had his freedom, only he gave his honest word that he'll return into the barracks. But ...


10

"The Man Who Touches Deer", by Bill Heavey, Field and Stream, October 2000, p. 44. The article is an interview of naturalist author Tom Brown, Jr., who claims he was taught as a child by a Lipan Apache scout.


9

Not Roman, but Greek. The term you are seeking is Symbolum. The best description I find is from the book Everything is Sacred: A Complete Introduction to the Sacrament of Baptism By Thomas J. Scirghi. (emphasis mine): The word symbol derives from the Greek word symballein, literally meaning 'to throw together.' In ancient times, a symbolum was used ...


8

What I'm seeing there for good attestations are the following: In Irish folklore, a Jack-o'-lantern appears to have been the same as what was called a will-o'-the-wisp in English folklore. In other words, ignited swamp gas visible at night, with lots of creative folklore built up around it. This is attested to as known folklore before we know of the term ...


7

During WW2, submarines on patrol were out of contact with friendly forces for extended periods of time. Even when operating in a Wolf-Pack, they generally couldn't tell exactly where their pack-mates were or how they were doing. While they could broadcast their status using their radios, this was limited to avoid radio intercepts and direction finding giving ...


7

The Nri were peaceful to the extent that they could, but when forced to the utmost, did engage in warfare as in the end of the 18th century. Meanwhile, their traditions—including the sieges that were instigated when someone broke the rules—were designed such that there would be no bloodshed and no deaths. The Nri A more detailed (compared to the Wiki) ...


6

It is a bit complicated... Since printing exists, its applications created professionals who were creating documents by hand. Books, and in later times magazines, were expensive because of the necessary amount of manual work involved. On the other hand people used handwriting for their own works; even dissertations were written by hand until the 1970s, ...


6

I have been doing some (online) research on the issue. What is clear and factual is that when Napoleon conquered most of Europe he set a lot of standards in the Conquered region. From driving on the right side, common measurements/weights to require people to have a last name. So this should be your answer already. All other countries driving direction can ...


5

A flag is flown at half-mast in memoriam as long as deemed appropriate by the head-of-state of the sovereignty. Note that in U.S. state governors are deemed to be sovereign within their states in this regard. (The precise delineation between Gubernatorial and Presidential authority in this regard is a Constitutional Law issue on which SCOTUS hasn't ruled on ...


5

I fairly often have to produce decently formatted printed documents. Endnotes, which I too dislike, are much easier to manage for the publisher. Footnotes on the other hand mess up your page layout big time. If they designer of the layout complains loud enough - and those prima donnas do that very well - the publisher happily gives in. To give you an ...


4

The main reason for publishers preferring endnotes over footnotes is financial: Many university presses now more or less require endnotes, since typesetting notes at the bottom of the page requires more fiddling by technicians and is therefore more expensive. Footnotes also carry the potential for added expense when corrections are made to page ...


4

Romans: I know they're not the first ones to come to mind, but their gladitorial games started as a tribute to the spirit of the deceased (i could be wording this very bad). also they twice buried alive a couple of greeks and celts, once during the second punic war, after cannae, on an interpretation of the sibillyne books.


4

Exemplary answer Somebody who will provide similar answer, with dated primary sources, will receive additional bounty. This drawing from Wikipedia shows two British soldiers (an officer and a sergeant) in 1848. Please note he's saluting with the left hand. This drawing (presumably dated the same period) shows two French soldiers from Napoleonic era: ...


3

Military paroles became impractical when mass conscription led to the formation of armies of tens or hundreds of thousands of men that were too hard to keep track of. Military parole was used as late as the American Revolution. This was when "armies" typically numbered in the thousands, and both sides spoke the same language (English). Also, the British ...


3

During the 17th Century, military records detail that the 'formal act of saluting was to be by removal of headdress' For some time after, hat raising became an accepted form of the military salute, but in the 18th Century the Coldstream Guards amended this procedure. They were instructed to 'clap their hands to their hats and bow as they pass by'. This was ...


3

In Adomnán of Iona's Life of St. Columba (Book 2, Chapter 39), the author speaks of a man from Derry who swore an oath of slavery to a man who saved him from the death penalty. He later ran away and ended up in Scotland, where he met St. Columba. The man, named Librán of the reed-bed, explains his his back-story thus: I killed a fellow. After this I was ...


2

This LA Times article by Richard C. Paddock (currently at the New York Times) attests that the practice was revived around the turn of the Millenium. Dayak tribespeople, upset with their treatment by Madurese settlers, revived their century dormant headhunting traditions (my emphasis): Before their killing rampage ebbed, the Dayaks had slaughtered nearly ...


2

Snopes According to Snopes both clinking glasses to ward off evil spirits, and to test for poison in the spirits, is false. Snopes Many explanations have been advanced to explain our custom of clinking glasses when participating in toasts. One is that early Europeans felt the sound helped to drive off evil spirits. Another holds that by clanking the glasses ...


2

Technologically it became not only possible, but easy in the time of cannon ships - when they started to heat the cannon balls to lit the enemy ships. If they could keep hot cannon balls, they could keep the hot stones without litting up the own ship. or to use these balls. Relatively closed space and pouring the water on these stones make no problem by ...


2

According to this book, in ancient Rome a saviour was treated as a 'second father'. Unfortunately google books cuts you off when you get to the relevant bit. The Wikipedia article about Fabius has the following quote: Fabius rushed to his co-commander's assistance and Hannibal's forces immediately retreated. After the battle, there was some feeling that ...


2

Ships in the age of sail (my grandfather rounded the "Horn on 2 square riggers) were on a "voyage" and posted "missing", not on a "Patrol". My late mother-in-laws first husband was Chief Quarter Master on the USS Swordfish SS 193 "Lost Jan 1945 no further details available" per the War Dept Telegram, most submariners refer to as on "Eternal Patrol" out of ...


1

Boxing day was used (in the UK) by many landed gentry to give a gift to their staff and/or suppliers as a thank you or payment for the services supplied during the year, this could be money or goods ie food or materials. This is an easily searched for topic, but one that I have been interested in as it is also my birthday. I will let you confirm the ...


1

The answer appears to be the Venetian Republic was the first nation to hold masquerade balls. Wikipedia has an article on the history of masquerade Victorian Masquerade Ball confirms many of the assertions in wikipedia Samantha Peach has an article that is less well sourced


1

With spaced regularity, here's another: Vikings sacrificed every 9 years people in honor of Odin. Saxo Grammaticus in his books about the history of Denmark reported it. Check this question for a more complete set of answers. While for the Aztecs or Mayans, talking only about the Mesoamerican ball game, I think there are discrepancies on how the sacrifices ...


1

Adding up an example, if you read the old testament, you see numerous examples, most famously when Abraham was willing to sacrifice Isaac, of course we know it didn't happen. And since Abraham didn't doubt this is God's will, I think this was in a way accepted, even if it wasn't the daily practice among Jewish people that time. consider the followings: 1 ...


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