96

The Hindenburg was originally built with 25 double-berthed cabins which accommodated up to 50 passengers. While the ship was laid up in Frankfurt during the winter of 1936-1937, 9 more cabins were added, accommodating an additional 20 passengers. The capacity was then 70 fare-paying passengers. The arrangement of cabins on the Hindenburg in 1936 is shown ...


65

In Moscow under former mayor Yuriy Luzhkov it was built a line (Butovo line) which is mostly elevated. I think the practice was not considered quite successful as a result. There are many drawbacks: The elevated line still consumes ground area. Even though one can lay highways and streets under it, one has to demolish buildings. Not much different from a ...


56

Long ago, in 16 century they used open fire in fair weather (with all possible precautions) on the deck to cook (ref. Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea). When the sea was rough, only cold food could be served. Later they used galleys of higher and higher sophistication, but still mostly in the good weather. There was no other way to heat oneself, except ...


55

This is mostly about urban planning, and how much change the local government can or will be able to make to the existing streets. In London, the central parts of the city (Westminster and the City) still have their street plan from medieval days, as the 1666 fire didn't burn the foundations. The streets there are far too narrow, and the buildings too ...


47

The overall answer is that the Soviets were not rich in railways and destroyed much of it as they retreated. The Germans anticipated this, and had railway commandos rebuild much of the Soviet trunk lines and some feeders to standard gauge. They also maintained several of the wide gauge lines if captured intact and with enough rolling stock. Some efforts, ...


46

The Agrarian History of England and Wales E. J. T. Collins, Joan Thirsk Cambridge University Press, 2000 page 993: Retailers complained that railway milk was not as fresh as town milk, and a difference in price reflected this fact. The European Cities and Technology Reader: Industrial to Post-industrial City, David C. Goodman, Psychology Press, 1999, ...


45

In the UK, the 1872 Licencing Act made it an offence to be: ... drunk while in charge on any highway or other public place of any carriage, horse, cattle, or steam engine, or who is drunk when in possession of any loaded firearms, ... I understand that parts of that Act remain in force.


35

Snow removal takes a lot of effort. It was easier to switch out wheeled carriages for sleighs. Sleighs work better with more snow, so that according to this article: in the 18th and 19th centuries, "snow was never a threat" to road travel, "but rather it was an asset." The more densely packed snow became, the better. Some municipalities even had ...


29

For New York, the answer is related to real estate value. In New York City, the construction of the metro was performed by real estate developers. The idea was to build homes, then connect them to the city with a subway. Sales of the new homes, in principle, then funded the metro system. Above ground trains were not conducive to high priced luxury ...


29

Never look at history with your own 'modern' perceptions! In those days there were only 2 ways to cross the Atlantic: by ship or by zeppelin. A ship took longer than a zeppelin. Everybody crossed by ship. The zeppelin was as new as space travel now is, so the rich and famous preferred it. If only to show off they could afford it. Boring? Today 4 days seems a ...


28

According to Manuel Moreyra Paz Soldán, El Virreinato de Perú, 1980, p. 79, the coinage embarked on ships corresponded to: Taxes obtained from the provinces and citizens in America: "recaudación para la Real Hacienda". Salaries from workers and sailors: "cajas de soldadas, incluyendo de la tripulación" Money to pay the expenses of the voyage: "talegas ...


27

Let me answer as a German with an analogy. You can compare the German speed limit to weapon ownership in US. Any party suggesting introduction of a general speed limit would conduct political suicide and face serious debates with the automobile lobby and voters (most workplaces here come from this branch). Most rational arguments points towards a speed ...


26

They were not free. In 1961 there was a currency reform, so the answer is about post-1961 period. A price of ride depended on the mode of transportation. For city public transport the price varied from 3 kopecks (tram) to 4 kopecks (trolleybus) to 5 kopecks (bus and metro). This was the country wide standard but in certain places the charge could vary. ...


25

It was more of a nuisance, than a reason for defeat. The part of a track that is hard to build is the bed. To narrow a track, all you have to do is pull out the spikes, move the rail and drive the spikes back in again. The bigger problem for the Germans was that the rail system in Russia is a hub-and-spokes design where all roads lead to Rome, meaning ...


25

There is a tunnel under a mountain in Samos built around 530 BC. It is described by Herodotus, book III, 60. In 1882 a tunnel which matches Herodotus description has been actually found. It is one kilometer long and 2 times 2 meters in cross section, so its dimensions suggest that people walked through it. What is especially amazing about this tunnel is ...


23

"Causing bodily harm by wanton or furious driving" (whether drunk or not) was made illegal by the Offences against the Person Act 1861. It is interpreted as applying to: drivers of horse-drawn carriages and vehicles motorists who cannot be prosecuted for dangerous driving because they were driving elsewhere than on a road or public place [...] ...


22

I'm hoping that this answer will resonate with your "theory of colonial economy", although it is not based on historical sources. Coins shouldn't be viewed as end products manufactured from a raw material. The metal is minted primarily to provide a standard way to quantize and control the content (amount) of the precious metal during circulation. For that ...


19

Seems to be an apocryphal story. The first steam locomotive that transported passengers is thought to be the Puffing Devil, created by Cornish inventor Richard Trevithick. Its first demonstration was on Christmas Eve 1801, after being assembled in a Redruth blacksmith shop. The event became a passenger carrying exercise because bystanders jumped on to the ...


18

There were several ways to stay warm. Not that any of them were exactly great. First winter travel was rare. Next is the fact that passengers (not crew) would not really go above deck much. They mostly just traveled below deck. If we're sticking with just passengers, and not talking about crew, and if we're talking about "the age of sail" then mostly the ...


17

The common date is the massive introduction of the automobile, in the early 1900s (interpreting these data) or 1908 (Ford T model production start). After the US civil war, a lot of train robberies happened, but the trains (as later the planes against high-jacking) were rapidly secured. The car itself rapidly became more value for potential robbers than ...


17

I think, it depends on the definition of a road. Most old roads will start as a path trail, later it will be paved. Maybe it will decline and become again a trail. I think some of the oldest roads will be a mountain pass. An example: The Brenner Pass in the Alps was already used in the stone age (Ötzi was found nearby).


17

It seems that it's a mock-up image produced as publicity for the passenger model of the 747 aircraft by Boeing/Pan-American Airways. It would have to have been from the late 1960s, since the 747 entered service with Pan Am in January 1970.


16

The Germans changed the gauge from Russian to German and could then use their own equipment. "Die Eisenbahnpioniere" at lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de shows Wehrmacht military railroad engineers changing the gauge. Reichsbahn personnel, civilians and forced laborers were also used to change the gauge.


16

During the Civil War, the national financial system was in chaos, and there was a drive towards 'revolutionary' and 'communist' practices in everyday life. The ideal economy was commonly understood as an economy running without money, on direct distribution and rationing of goods and services. In Russian historiography, this era in social and economic system ...


15

In metro there were turnstiles (although in many places the turnstiles were only at entrance and you could enter freely via exit). The turnstiles accepted coins and there were also exchange machines which accepted 10, 15 and 20 kopecks coins and gave you 5 kopecks coins in return. In intercity buses (which costed more) there were conductors. In city buses, ...


15

I would not say "most" but many people owned them. In the big cities, especially children (I am not talking about rural areas). Streets were NOT crowded with bikes (cannot even compare with Denmark or China, and even with Germany). Bikes were affordable and available, but few adult people in the big cities used them for transportation. They were used more ...


15

Many of the coins shipped to Europe were quickly and crudely minted. These were called cobs. According to a page at Notre Dame University, The intention in minting these crude but accurately weighed cobs was to produce an easily portable product that could be sent to Spain. In Spain the cobs would be melted down to produce silver jewelry, coins, bars and ...


14

The decline of wagons was very gradual. They were displaced for long-distance movement of bulk goods starting in the 1820s and 1830s by the canal building frenzy sparked by the success of the Erie Canal. Canals were the cheapest way to ship bulk goods for a long time. By the 1840s, ocean-faring steamboats provided direct competition to wagons for ...


14

I believe this is somewhat overstating the risks and well as the severity of the disasters. A sengokubune (千石船) refers to a ship that can carry 1000 koku of rice (sen = 1000). The actual ship design being referred to is known as a benzaisen (弁才船), originally a type of small cargo boat developed in, and for use within, the Seto Inland Sea. In their calm, ...


14

Trans-Atlantic passenger travel was not very popular until the advent of the steamer, and yet men and women crossed the ocean periodically, including the affluent. Trans-Atlantic passenger travel didn't exist before the advent of steam power. It became possible because of steam power. Before, people had to have very good reasons for traveling. Migrating ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible