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63

SHORT ANSWER Yes, there were some restrictions on movement during the period 1347 - 51 but mostly (with a few exceptions such as some city states and Poland) they were haphazard and depended on local or personal initiatives and / or religion rather than national governments. Invariably, the measures that were taken were too little, too late. Further, ...


41

Historically, the solution to this was the letter of credit, circular note, traveller's cheque, or similar. Basically, it was an attestation that the bearer of the document had deposited a certain amount of money with the issuing institution. No attempt was made at "atomicity", rather, the goal was "eventual correctness", where the ...


36

Quite simply, they did not guarantee atomicity or synchronicity, they guaranteed eventual consistency. The general principle is simple: it doesn't matter when the money actually gets moved, provided that it's done in a 'reasonable' amount of time and is reserved for the specified transaction. The way you achieve this is very simple too. For this to work, you ...


19

Short answer Pausanias does not clearly outline his aims in his work Periegesis or, if he did, that part of text has been lost. Thus, historians have had to rely on clues in Pausanias' text and what we know of the environment in which he was brought up. Looking at your list above, we can (mostly tentatively) surmise the following about his reasons for ...


11

Based on the accepted answer linked below, Poland did: In addition to Poland's relatively sparse population, a key factor is that King Casimir the Great wisely quarantined the Polish borders. By holding the plague off at the borders, the disease's impact on Poland was softened. Sources: middle ages - Why was Poland spared from the Black Death? - History ...


5

I originally wanted to close this as a duplicate of this question, How was security on the Silk Road between China and the West maintained?, because the primary answer answers this question as well: Few people ever traveled the full length of the Silk Road. The goods were transported by a series of routes and agents. This mode meant that local agents, ...


5

There have been trips done in well equipped 4x4s in recent years. You can generally find more info searching in Russian. Several examples: There is a youtube video from 2016 and corresponding news article and blog writeup. A group made it in 2013. An article from 2009. and a youtube channel from the overlanders. For a rough map of the route here is a map (...


5

Brandon DuPont, Drew Keeling and Thomas Weiss published a paper looking at fares over a long period. Figure 5 shows that transatlantic fares in the Edwardian era were typically around $25 or £5 for steerage passengers. Second class and first class would be around double and quadruple although this varied much more between companies. Slightly cheaper rates ...


5

This can't really be reconciled historically, because Abraham was written as a mythological figure, not a historic one. The Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, and it is widely agreed that the patriarchal age, along with The Exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in ...


5

In addition to Lars Bosteen's answer, the Decameron also says that Florence denied entry to people who were visibly ill: In Florence, despite all that human wisdom and forethought could devise to avert it, as the cleansing of the city from many impurities by officials appointed for the purpose, the refusal of entrance to all sick folk, and the ...


4

It seems the dugout variety canoe mentioned in the question was likely to be the variety encountered still in the mid-19th century. An ethnology titled THE MAYA INDIANS OF SOUTHERN YUCATAN AND NORTHERN BRITISH HONDURAS by Thomas W. F. Gann, published in 1916 has a section concerning boat building: The Indians living in the neighborhood of lakes and rivers ...


3

Bloemfontein is semi-tropical high plains (1400 metres ASL) with temperatures even in July, its mid winter, not far off what most temperate communities in North America and Western Europe might see in April or September. As shown, freezing temperatures are rare even in the depths of "winter". El Paso Texas is probably the closest U.S. comparable, ...


2

In 1904 Canadian Pacific Railway commissioned two sister ships, RMS Empress of Ireland and RMS Empress of Britain, to commence operation on the lucrative Liverpool to Quebec (St. John, New Brunswick in winter) run inn 1906. Both had a cruising speed of 18 knots and a maximum speed of 20 knots, allowing the westward passage from Liverpool to Quebec City to be ...


1

Two Generals Problem To more directly answer your question, in technological history, this is a form of Two Generals Problem, which not only factors in latency but the risk of losing transmissions (highly likely over the dangerous vastness of space) when sending data between two places with a risk of data loss/delay inbetween. From a technical standpoint, ...


1

I'd like to offer another interpretation: the Mayans may not have been using oceangoing canoes at all by the 19th century. Smaller dugouts for inland waterways did continue to exist. Larger vessels are more stable in the ocean, and the historical record of the contact period repeatedly mentions substantial Mayan coasting vessels; see J. Eric S. Thompson for ...


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